Power BI Data Modeling

Data Modelling is a unique feature that is utilized in BI tools to relate different data sources with the help of establishing a relationship. In the modeling of data, different relationships describe how data sources are linked to one another, making it easy to create relevant data visualizations based on multiple sources of data. In this blog, we shall discuss the Power BI data modeling. The blog will help you to understand what is Power BI, an overview of data modeling, an insight into the types of data modeling, the concept of Cardinality, executing data modeling in Power BI, and the best practices of data modeling in Power BI.

Power BI Data Modeling- Table of Content

What is Power BI?

Microsoft Power BI is a business intelligence tool that is totally technology-driven. It aids in analyses and visualization of raw data to delivery information that is actionable. It integrates the verticals of business intelligence, visualization of data, and their respective best practices to assist organizations in making data-driven determinations. As a consequence of the functionality of the Power BI platform, Gartner named Microsoft the best tool for Analytics & Business Intelligence Platform in the year 2019.

What is Data Modelling?

The task of providing a clear picture of an entire information system or components of it in order to communicate relationships between different data points and frameworks is known as data modeling. The goal is to demonstrate the different kinds of data being used and stored within the framework, as well as the connections between these datasets, as well as the myriad facets the data can be clustered and structured, as well as its layouts and qualities.

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Types of Data Models

There are different types of data models. Some of the most popular ones are-

Hierarchical Model

A tree-like structure of the model gives it the name hierarchical model. There is one master node or one parent node, and the other respective child nodes are arranged in a specific order. However, the hierarchical model is now very seldom used. This model is applicable to real-world model connections.

Relational Model

The term "relational" refers to the various relationships that exist between entities. There are also various sets of relationships between both entities, including one to one, one to many, many to many, and many to one. 

Object-oriented data model

The object-oriented approach includes the production of objects that display data. The object-oriented model allows for communication while also allowing for data abstraction, inheritance, and entrapment.

Network Model

The network type data modelling allows us to represent relationships between objects in a modular fashion. This model has a unique feature known as a framework that represents the data as a graph. A given object is represented within a node, and the relationship between them is represented as an edge, allowing them to keep multiple parent and child registers in a generalized fashion.

Entity-relationship Model

The ER model (Entity-relationship model) is a high-level relational model used to define data elements and relationships for system entities. This conceptual design provides a better view of the data, making it comprehensible. The original data is depicted in this prototype by an entity-relationship graph, which is made up of Entities, Attributes, and Relationships.

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Cardinality and the Types of Cardinalities

In the realm of data modeling, cardinality refers to a join that exists between two different tables and represents the numerical relationship between different rows in one table and the rows of the other table. 

The different types of Cardinalities are-

One to One

A solitary line of the first table partners with a single line of the second table. For instance, a connection among individuals and an identification table is coordinated in light of the fact that an individual can have just a single visa and a visa can be allocated to just a single individual.

One to Many

A single column of the first table partners with more than one line of the second table. For instance, a connection between the client and request table is one to numerous in light of the fact that a client can put in many orders yet a request can be put by a solitary client alone.

Many to One

Many columns of the first table partner with a solitary line of the second table. For instance, the connection between understudy and college is numerous to one in light of the fact that a college can have numerous understudies yet an understudy can concentrate on just one college at a time.

Many to Many

Many columns of the first table partner with many lines of the second table. For instance, the connection between understudy and course table is numerous to numerous on the grounds that an understudy can require some investment and a course can be doled out to numerous understudies.

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Data Modelling with Power BI

Power BI can be used in two ways. The first option is to install Power BI Desktop on the user's computer. The other option is to access the Power BI service through a browser. Power BI Desktop has more features and tools than the Power BI service. However, both offer the same features and functions for creating, managing, and saving data visualisations. 

1. Install Power BI Desktop

The user can easily download the Power BI desktop from the official store of Microsoft. It will also require a corporate or school email address to Sign-Up for Power BI. On the off chance that you don't have one, make a free Microsoft Azure Portal record to receive an email address with the area onmicrosoft.com.

2. Know Your workspace

know your workplace

1. In this you can Sign-Up for Power BI utilizing your corporate email address or Azure Portal Account.
2. This will be the name of your task.
3. This is the menu given by Power BI.
4. 'Reports' tab where you can see your made representations and reports.
5. 'Data' tab to make and deal with the information you have imported in Power BI.
6. 'Model' tab will assist you with dealing with the information models and connections.
7. In this region you can use to fill in your perceptions and reports.
8. These are different graph types and representations you can use to plan your reports.
9. You will see the 'Field' segment which will be useful to see and deal with your all datasets imported in Power BI.

3. Import Sample Data

import sample data

Power BI permits bringing in information from different sources. Here we will import from a dominant sheet that contains tables. These tables address the relationship with information embedded in lines and sections. Power BI consequently perceives the information and its connection in a table on a solitary import. To import information, visit the 'Home' menu from the top, then, at that point, click on 'Get Data' and select the technique you need to utilize. It will require some investment to process and show results on your screen. Assuming you feel that your information is appropriately stacked, click on the 'Heap' button. Else, click 'Change Data' to roll out certain improvements.

Data Models In Power BI

Power BI consequently distinguishes every one of the potential relations between various arrangements of information. Now and then we want to make a connection between the information physically.

information physically

After the import of data is finished, visit the 'Models' tab from the left side, as featured in the above picture. Here you will see some mechanized connections made by Power BI. Every one of the lines apparent here in the 'Models' tab portrays the cardinality and heading of the connection starting with one table then onto the next. You can make and adjust this default relationship made by Power BI utilizing the Manage Relationship device given on the top menu as featured in the picture.

4. Create And Manage Relationship

create and manage

In the wake of tapping on 'Oversee Relationship,' a comparable screen will show up, as displayed in the above picture. You can see every one of the dynamic relations here starting with one table then onto the next. Everything you can do with these relations are clarified underneath:

1. New - This choice will assist you with making another connection between tables.

2. Autodetect - Using this choice, Power BI naturally recognizes the connection between information present in tables.

3. Edit - This choice will assist you with editting your information relationship.

4. Delete - It erases the chose connection between the tables.

tables

Presently subsequent to tapping on 'New' or 'Edit', a comparable screen will show up before you, as displayed previously. Here we will disclose to you the motivation behind every one of the choices individually.

1. The first drop-down menu will permit you to choose the table from which you need to make a connection.

2. The choice in the subsequent drop-down menu will make a connection from the primary table to the second.

3. You will choose the Cardinality connection here, however, you would not compel be able to Power BI to choose a particular cardinality that doesn't exist.

4. Here you can choose the bearing of the relationship as 'Single' or from 'Both'.

Assuming that you know about Excel, you might have dealt with the DAX (Data Analysis Expression) recipe. In the event that not, then, at that point, no concerns. I will clarify in short and straightforward words. Like programming, DAX is a bunch of guidelines used to work out information from the tables. These articulations incorporate orders for Addition, Multiplication, Average, Percentage, and others with different channels.

1. Table 1 = DISTINCT(Table 2[Column 1]), this expression will fill all of the unique values in Table 1 from Column 1 in Table 2.

2. Column1 = RIGHT(Table1[Column Name],3); this expression will fill in Column1 with the last three characters from Column Name.

Let's make some calculations using our shop data from Power BI. Select the 'Data' tab from the left menu, as shown in the image below. You will find some tools to help you calculate your data here. These will be used in Power BI.

power bi

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Create Table

create table

In the wake of tapping on 'New Table', we really want to enter the DAX articulation displayed in the above picture.

1. The initial segment of the articulation characterizes the name of the table.

2. The second is the channel; the 'Particular' capacity will choose just the exceptional qualities from the section.

3. We need to pass the boundaries inside the 'Particular' work, and these boundaries are the area from which we will remove our information. So, we have passed the table and section name where our nation codes are available. Whenever your demeanour is finished, click 'Enter'.

4. After applying the articulation, we will get our new section with the default name and results. To rename a segment, you can double tap on it.

Make Column

Click on 'New Column' from the top menu to make a determined section.

make a coloumn

1. The DAX expression will compute all revenue from the table 'Revenue' with the filter set to 'Country.' We could have spent hours calculating the individual revenue generated by the country if we hadn't used this expression.
2. This is the outcome of the expression.
Although Power BI recommends that you write an expression, remembering all of them may be difficult. In this case, you can make use of the Quick Measure tool. All you have to do is fill in the parameters and function for calculation. Depending on your selection, this tool will then generate the expression automatically. These measurement tools are also useful when you need to perform quick calculations for reports.

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4. Create Visualization

create visualization

In the imported data of the given example, we only had sales, sales by country, and product price. Using the methods described above, we created a separate table containing the revenue generated by each country. Using various visualisations, we have depicted the country's revenue on a world map. Similarly, Power BI allows you to create and manage data models.

Data Modelling in Power BI- Best Practices

Some of the best practices for data modelling in Power BI are-

Use Different Schemas for Different Needs

One of the main examples I have found out with regards to information displaying over the past 20+ years is that there isn't one model that fits all business needs. Be that as it may, there are basic examples we can follow to show information as indicated by various business needs. Each example or composition has an alternate arrangement of rules. At an extremely undeniable level, we can imagine these patterns in three unique classes.

Simplicity – Ockham’s Razor

Ockham's razor may be one of the most cited philosophical thoughts in the realm of examination, and understandably! With regards to the information model, basic is typically great. The thought is to attempt to restrict the number of tables and information connections to an absolute minimum.

Deliberateness

Regardless of whether the basics are great, purposefulness is better. "Purposeful" can be characterized as "finished with or set apart by full awareness of nature and impacts; deliberate". Every information demonstrating choice needs to bear the last information representation objective as a main priority. Each table and information relationship should have an obviously characterized reason in the extent of the report being created.

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Conclusion 

Data modelling in Power BI provides a very effective means for the companies to increase their business opportunities. It helps the companies to receive consistent results and thus, the companies are able to maximize their business potential. 

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Gayathri
Gayathri
Research Analyst
As a senior Technical Content Writer for HKR Trainings, Gayathri has a good comprehension of the present technical innovations, which incorporates perspectives like Business Intelligence and Analytics. She conveys advanced technical ideas precisely and vividly, as conceivable to the target group, guaranteeing that the content is available to clients. She writes qualitative content in the field of Data Warehousing & ETL, Big Data Analytics, and ERP Tools. Connect me on LinkedIn.