Python Partial Function

Python is a very friendly programming language, and functions are an essential part of it. We can bundle a set of instructions in a function and call them when needed. So functions are useful in carrying out a specified task. You might have already come across various built-in functions that are available in python. But partial functions are somewhat special functions. In this post, we will explain about partial functions in detail. Before going through this post, it is recommended to acquire some basic knowledge of python. Here, we will cover topics like what partial functions are, how to create them, and how to call them.

Python partial function

A partial function is one of the tools in the Functools module. 'Functools' is a module provided by python for higher-order functions, i.e., act on or return other functions. 'Functools' contains tools for functional-style programming. 

Partial functions help in calling another function with the positional arguments (args) and keyword arguments (keywords). We can fix some values in certain arguments. We can create new functions without having to replicate the body of the original function. 

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Creating a partial function

Let us create a partial function that calculates the cube roots of the given numbers.

from functools import partial

#Create a function

def exponent(a,b):        

return a ** b

#Create a partial function that calculates cube roots

result = partial(exponent,3)


The first function is for defining exponent arguments. The second function 'result' is created for fixing the value '3' in the arguments to send to the main function - exponent. The output for the above program will be 81. If you want to generate square roots of given numbers, you can just replace the value '3' with '2' in the result partial function.

Here is one more program which performs multiplication of different numbers. 

from functools import partial

def expression(a,b,c,d):

return a*2 + b*3 + c*4 + d

result = partial(expression,5,6,7)


The output for this program will be 66.

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Benefits of partial functions

Here are some benefits of using partial functions in your code.

  • We can construct variants of existing functions.
  • Partial functions are used to derive values from normal functions.
  • A partial function is similar to bind functionality in c++.
  • We can call the partial functions in multiple places of our code. It helps in code reusability.
  • Reduce the number of lines in your code.

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Partial functions help in removing redundancy. It also improves your coding capability. It is especially used in applying a range of different inputs to a single object (or) set somethings as constant in arguments of a function. So what are you waiting for? Try out creating different kinds of partial functions and have fun. Do check out our other python tutorials and blogs on python to increase your skill level.

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