Elasticsearch Vs Mongodb

Elasticsearch is a dispersed, open source search and investigation engine constructed on Apache Lucene and created in Java. It began as a versatile adaptation of the Lucene open-source search structure that added the capacity to evenly scale Lucene files. Elasticsearch permits you to store, search, and investigate enormous volumes of information rapidly including geospatial, organized, and unstructured and offer back responses in milliseconds. It utilizes a structure dependent on archives rather than tables and outlines and accompanies broad Rest APIs for putting away and analysing the information. In 2010, it was first delivered by Elasticsearch N.V. (presently known as Elastic). Elasticsearch is the focal segment of the Elastic Stack, a bunch of open source devices for information ingestion, visualization, stockpiling, and investigation. Generally alluded to as the ELK Stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, and Kibana), Elastic Stack presently incorporates an assortment of delivery operators known as Beats for sending information to Elasticsearch. In this tutorial, we will learn about the uses of Elasticsearch, how it works, its concepts and components; along with discussing MongoDB, its concepts, advantages and uses. The comparison between Elasticsearch and MongoDB is also done to enhance your knowledge. Now, let’s go through them in detail.

Uses of Elasticsearch

The speed and versatility of Elasticsearch and its capacity to record numerous sorts of data imply that it very well may be utilized for various purposes like site search, log investigation  and logging, foundation metrics, application search, business and security analysis, enterprise search and geospatial information analysis.

How does Elasticsearch work?

Raw information streams into Elasticsearch from an assortment of sources, consisting of logs, web applications, and framework metrics. Information ingestion is the cycle by which information is parsed, standardized, and enhanced before it is listed in Elasticsearch. Clients can run complex questions against their information and use collections to recover complex synopses of their information once filed in Elasticsearch.

Programming languages and text languages used

Elasticsearch backs up a variety of programming languages like Ruby, Java, PHP, JavaScript (Node.js), Python, Go, .NET (C#),and  Perl. It also supports 34 text dialects, varying from Arabic language to Thai, and gives analyzers for each. Backing for extra dialects can be added with custom plugins.

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Concepts under elasticsearch
Elasticsearch index

Elasticsearch index is an assortment of reports that are identified with one another. It stores information as JSON archives or documents. Each report relates a bunch of keys consisting of the name  full-text analysis. It records each extraordinary word that shows up in any report and recognizes the entirety of the archives that each word has. In this method,  it stores records and assembles an inverted index to make the archive information accessible. Indexing begins with the file API, with which a JSON report in a particular file is added or refreshed. The index is like an information base in a social data set pattern. Any records in a list are ordinarily legitimately related. This can be distinguished by a name that is utilized to allude to the list while performing ordering, search, update, and erase activities against the archives in it.


Documents are the essential unit of data that can be ordered in Elasticsearch communicated in JSON, which is the worldwide web information trade design. It can be something other than text, like numbers, strings, and dates, it tends to be any organized information encoded in JSON. Each report has an exceptional ID and a given information type.

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Backend Components


It is a gathering of at least one node instances that are linked together. The intensity of an Elasticsearch group lies in the appropriation of errands, tasks, analyzing, and ordering all the nodes of the cluster.


It is a solitary server that is a part of a cluster that stores information and partakes in the indexing and search abilities. Master Node handles the Elasticsearch cluster, and is liable for all group wide activities like making/erasing a list and adding/eliminating nodes. Data Node stores data and executes data-related operations such as search and aggregation. Client Node transfers cluster solicitations to master node and information requests to other data nodes.


Elasticsearch gives the capacity to partition the file into various pieces called shards. Every shard is in itself a completely practical and free index which can be facilitated on any particular node inside a cluster. Circulates the reports in a list over various shards, and appropriates those shards over numerous nodes. Elasticsearch guarantees repetition that ensures against equipment failure and builds inquiry limits as nodes are being added to the cluster. 


Elasticsearch permits you to make at least one duplicate of your record's shards which are designated “replica shards” or just “replicas”. Replica shard is essentially a copy of the primary shard. Each archive in a file has a place with one essential shard. It gives excess duplicates of your information to secure against equipment failure and increase the ability to serve demands like searching or recovering a document.

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What is MongoDB

MongoDB, a document oriented database, which implies it stores information in JSON-like documents. It is a leading NoSQL database. It is written in C++ in light of configuration to deal with terabytes of information spread over various geolocations. In MongoDB, you can make different databases, and every data set can have various assortments (tables). Mongodb is an open database that is a non structured query language. The databases are helping organizations in a few different ways. Fundamentally, they work on the reason for database organization strategies that wipes out dependence between database archives and other data identified with the programs or functions. 

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Concepts of MongoDB 

MongoDB gives elite performance, high accessibility, and simple adaptability. It takes a shot at the idea of collection and document. Any relational database has an average schema that shows the number of tables and the connection between these tables. There is no concept of relationship in MongoDB. Database is an actual compartment for collections. Every information base gets its own arrangement of documents on the file framework. A solitary MongoDB server normally has various databases. 


Collection is a gathering of MongoDB reports. It is what might be compared to a RDBMS table. It exists inside a single database. It doesn't authorize a schema or an outline. Documents inside a collection can have various fields. All reports in a collection are for comparative or related reasons.


A document can be called a bunch of key value sets. They have a dynamic schema. It means that records in the same collection don't have to have similar arrangement of fields or structure, and regular fields in the collection's archives may hold various kinds of information. 

Uses of MongoDB 
  • It has document oriented storage where data is put away as JSON style reports. It deals with arrays and other nested objects as values.
  • Data is index on any attribute
  • Have high accessibility, replication, both flexible and dynamic schemas.
  • Works on auto sharding
  • Includes rich queries
  • Quick set up refreshes and updates
  • Proficient help by MongoDB 

Comparison between Elasticsearch vs MangoDB:

Use Cases

Elasticsearch: When you need a full-text search and log analytics on your data, Elasticsearch is more helpful as it offers a wide range of aggregation queries. At the point when the information is in NoSQL format and you need an exceptionally adaptable database which requires CRUD tasks without full-text search.

MongoDB: MongoDB is a dependable choice. It bolsters full-text inquiries with the assistance of text-based files, yet its speed is moderate and it comes up short on the tokenizers and analyzers that accompany a pursuit server.

Licensing Model, Monitoring, and Security

Elasticsearch: Elasticsearch, an open source device that accompanies an Apache 2.0 permit. This has all of the functionalities you require for building a search application alongside fundamental security highlights. On the off chance that you need extra functionalities like progressed security, alarming, and AI, you should buy a membership to the Gold, Platinum, or Enterprise renditions of Elasticsearch. 

MongoDB: MongoDB has its community edition with a Server Side Public License (SSPL) v1.0. This contains all the core MongoDB features, similar to essential observing apparatuses and security. 

Programming Language: Java vs. Lucene

Both offer user support in multiple languages. Elasticsearch is written in Java. Elasticsearch has users accessible for Java, Ruby, Javascript, GO, .NET, Python, PHP, Rust and Perl. MongoDB is written in C++. MongoDB offers accessibility for languages like C, C++, Scala, and Swift. Various community contributed clients are also available for MongoDB.

Backup Recovery

Elasticsearch:Elasticsearch and MongoDB, both offer recovery and backup functionality as a matter of course. Elasticsearch performs gradual backups utilizing snapshot REST endpoints with the assistance of plugins. It can shift from document frameworks to cloud storage. The advantage of previews is that they are gradual in nature. You can erase as well as recover previews, it is excessively simple to configure. The snapshot API doesn't offer queryable reinforcement.

MongoDB:MongoDB offers various approaches to perform backups. The “mongodump” tool, with the MongoDB installation is the well-known arrangement DevOps teams use. This has some limitations, it doesn't take steady reinforcements and isn't compelling for large databases, it offers features like  individual collection, whole database reinforcement, and queryable backup.

Support for Handling Relational Data

Relational database stores data in rows and columns.Elasticsearch and MongoDB uphold the document model. They center around keeping information in a denormalized design. Elasticsearch has two inherent functionalities for taking care of  relational data, the nested and parent child document models. MongoDB additionally has two different ways to deal with relational data. The embedded document model, in which related items enter capacity as subdocuments. The other is the reference model, which incorporates connections or references starting with one archive then onto the next.

Data Storage Architecture: Lucene vs. C++

Elasticsearch:Elasticsearch was based on top of Lucene and utilizes Lucene portions to compose information inside inverted indexes. The metadata, for example, settings, index mapping, and other bunch states is written in Elasticsearch documents on top of Lucene. The issue with Lucene is that they are permanent in nature and each submission makes another fragment. These segments converge in the background dependent on combined settings. To try not to produce an excessive number of segments and significant I/O, Elasticsearch keeps up a transactional log for each record, maintaining a strategic distance from a low-level Lucene submit on each ordering activity. Transaction logs are valuable for recovering information if there should be an occurrence of an accident or information defilement function.

MongoDB:MongoDB’s basic storage model is totally not quite the same as Elasticsearch. MongoDB, written in C++, uses a memory map document to plan an on-disk information record to an in-memory byte array. It utilizes a doubly connected list information structure to sort out the information. Each archive contains a connected list to each other report just as to the real BSON-encoded information in the engine. MongoDB utilizes diary logs to help with database recuperation in the event of a hard shutdown. These distinctions exhibit that MongoDB is worked for high compose and update throughput without causing high CPU and disk I/O issues.

  • Likewise with Elasticsearch, each record in MongoDB enters storage as a JSON object. MongoDB is additionally a schemaless information base that supports work in security highlights like access control, authentication, and encryption. 

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Advantages of MongoDB over RDBMS

  • It is schema less, a document database in which one assortment holds various records. Number of fields, content, and size of the report can vary starting with one archive then onto the next. 
  • The structure of a single object is vivid.
  • It has no intricate joins. 
  • It has profound query ability and supports dynamic questions on records utilizing a report based inquiry language that is close to as amazing as SQL. 
  • Tuning.
  • Simplicity of scaling out
  • Transformation/mapping of objects to database articles not required. 
  • Utilizes internal memory for putting away the working set, empowering quicker access of information.


Both Elasticsearch and MongoDB have plans as a top priority for explicit use cases, however there might be situations where the decision of one device over the other might be more intricate. To sum up, MongoDB is a well known and adaptable NoSQL information base that is an innovator in archive oriented databases. MongoDB is broadly useful, for current application developers and for the cloud era. It is typically the best arrangement when the utilization case requires a profoundly versatile database with high throughput exchanges. With regards to taking care of log analytics, full-text search, discovering abnormalities, and root cause recognition, Elasticsearch is the unmistakable victor.

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As a senior Technical Content Writer for HKR Trainings, Gayathri has a good comprehension of the present technical innovations, which incorporates perspectives like Business Intelligence and Analytics. She conveys advanced technical ideas precisely and vividly, as conceivable to the target group, guaranteeing that the content is available to clients. She writes qualitative content in the field of Data Warehousing & ETL, Big Data Analytics, and ERP Tools. Connect me on LinkedIn.