Programming Languages List

In the early days, the computer programming world was minimal, and there were very limited programmers with excellent coding skills. But today, everything has changed with the growing technology, and there is good growth in IT jobs which require hands-on programming language skills. While planning to advance your career as a programmer, you must choose the best programming language to learn. Multiple programming languages are available today, and many more will come.

However, you need to invest more, and mastering any programming language will take some time to master any programming language. So, you have to make the right choice for a better future. Also, while choosing the best programming language, you must check the difficulty level, system requirements, and other aspects. Selecting the best one from the list of programming languages might be challenging.

Therefore, we have compiled a programming languages list to learn in 2023 and beyond to make it easy. Before diving into this blog, you should briefly know about programming language.

What is a Programming Language?

A programming language is a computer language that a programmer or developer uses to communicate with the computer. Moreover, a programming language is a set of instructions and rules written in any specific language to execute a particular task. Developers primarily use programming or coding language to develop desktop, mobile, and web apps. Further, many others, like web designers, video game developers, computer system engineers, etc., use programming languages.

We cannot develop and use any application or website without a programming language. So, programming language plays a vital role in developing various apps. Further, there are two types of programming languages- Low Level and High-Level languages.

Low-Level Programming Languages

A low-level programming language is machine-dependent in which a processor can run these programs much faster. It doesn't need a compiler or interpreter. This low-level language is further divided into two types as-

  • Machine Language
  • Assembly Language

High-Level Programming Languages

A high-level programming language helps developers to build user-friendly websites, software programs, etc. These languages require a compiler to translate the program into machine code. Further, high-level coding languages like Python, Java, C, C++, Cobol, Perl, Lisp, Swift, etc., are easy to understand and write. Also, we can easily maintain them.

The high-level programming languages are further classified into different parts, such as;-

  • Oops Language
  • Procedural-oriented programming language (POP)
  • Natural Language

Best programming languages to learn

Most aspirants are confused about what coding language they should learn for a better career. In this blog, we have compiled the best programming languages for beginners and professionals. So, anyone interested in advancing their career can start learning these programming languages.

  • Java
  • Python
  • JavaScript
  • C and C++
  • R
  • Swift
  • GoLang
  • HTML
  • Ruby
  • Kotlin


Java is a high-level object-oriented programming language that tops the list of programming languages. It is one of the most widely used coding languages today. Sun Microsystems developed it. Oracle later acquired it. Java language is handy for creating various desktop, mobile, and enterprise-level apps and is compatible with any device. Further, it is compatible with any platform, such as Windows, Linux, iOS, Android, etc.

Java programming language is open-source and has a vast community of developers. They contribute well towards its growth. They also support Java users worldwide. Moreover, Java is much popular language because of its features like:-

  • Platform independence
  • Versatility
  • User-friendly interface
  • Portability across multiple platforms
  • Oops language

Today, Java developers with extensive skills are in high demand worldwide. An expert Java Developer in India can earn an annual salary between Rs. 2 to 9.5 lakhs p.a. The average annual salary is Rs. 4 LPA.

Moreover, Java language offers an easy learning curve to aspirants with basic coding knowledge. Thus, Java is considered the best programming language for beginners. Many large-scale companies use Java, including popular websites and apps like Google, Amazon, YouTube, Netflix, Uber, etc. All these features make Java the best programming language.

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Python is the most popular, widely used, and the best programming language for beginners. Moreover, Python is an open-source coding language with excellent community support. It is famous for its readability because it uses simple syntax. Further, Python language is easy to integrate with multiple web services and helps to build GUI-based desktop apps quickly. Also, many Machine Learning and Deep Learning apps use Python language.

Python is compatible with web and desktop platforms and offers an easy learning curve for beginners. Besides the above, Python is extensively used to develop video games, 3D animations, and popular websites like Quora, YouTube, Instagram, etc.

Companies like Intel, IBM, Netflix, Facebook, etc., also use Python. However, it is popular because it is flexible, intuitive, highly readable, and scripting language.

The following features make it a more popular coding language:-

  • Highly flexible
  • Easy to read
  • Open-source availability
  • OOPs language
  • Extensible and easy to code language
  • Highly Portable

After learning Python, you can go for multiple job profiles like Python Developer, Web Developer, Data Scientist, Web Testing, etc. The annual salary that a Python Developer can earn ranges between Rs. 3 to 9 lakhs per year. The average annual salary stands at Rs. 4 lakhs p.a. Moreover, the popular companies that hire Python developers include Microsoft, IBM, Intel, Cisco, Facebook, Spotify, etc.


JavaScript is also one of the best programming languages, mainly used in the world wide web. It is a dynamically typed scripting language used in developing dynamic web pages. However, it is frequently used with HTML and CSS to create many front-end apps, which makes it easier to click, drag, and move any webpage element. Moreover, it is widely used on client-side apps, which gives websites more power.

For the aspirants of web development, JavaScript is an ideal choice to learn. It is a highly versatile helpful language for front-end and server-side programming. We can use it for mobile app development and games and to automate many mundane tasks. Also, JavaScript has a vast community that openly supports beginners worldwide and resolves issues.

Its benefits include:-

  • User-friendly interface
  • Easy for beginners
  • Supports cross-platform
  • Can be used across the web
  • Best for mobile app development, etc.

A skilled JavaScript Developer makes an annual average salary of Rs. 6.3 lakhs per year. The yearly salary of JavaScript Developers ranges between Rs. 2 to 12 lakhs per year. Globally popular companies like Facebook, Google, LinkedIn, PayPal, Instagram, Walmart, etc., use JavaScript.

C and C++

C is the oldest programming language and is a base for many other programming languages like Java, C#, JavaScript, and more. On the other side, C++ is an advanced version of C language. However, these are widely used programming and high-performance languages that support app development.

Moreover, both are the best programming languages to learn, which require basic problem-solving skills, basic computer operations, etc. The following are the best features of C & C++ languages:-

C Language

  • Simple and fast
  • Highly efficient
  • Portable
  • Rich in libraries
  • Good memory management

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C++ Language

  • OOP language
  • Platform Independent
  • Simple to use
  • Supports dynamic memory allocation
  • Exception handling

A skilled C Developer earns an annual salary between Rs 1.7 to 12 lakhs p.a. with an average salary of Rs 4.5 lakhs p.a. Similarly, a C++ developer earns around Rs. 10 lakhs per year as an average salary. The top companies using C/C++ languages include Apple, Mozilla, Adobe, Bloomberg, and Microsoft.

R Programming

Among the best programming languages to learn, R is one of the most popular open-source coding languages. It is a modern language with the functions like statistical computing, testing, analysis, data analysis, data visualizations, data science, etc.

Moreover, R is a simplified coding language that helps us do modular programming using various functions. Also, it can easily integrate with the languages like C, C++, Python, .Net, etc. Further, R programming language is generally used by data analysts, marketers, researchers, etc. It helps to clean, analyze, visualize, and present data effectively.

Features of R programming include-

  • Simple and very effective
  • Useful for data analysis
  • Open-source
  • Highly extensible
  • Effective in data handling

An R language expert earns an average salary of Rs 5.19 lakhs annually.


Swift is a popular programming language developed by Apple company. It is in Linux and MacOS applications. It is an open-source coding language, one of the top programming languages to learn. To learn Swift language, basic coding skills are necessary. Further, it is popularly used in iOS apps such as WordPress, Firefox, etc.

Features and benefits of Swift language include-

  • Easier to read, write, and maintain
  • Very fast and have concise code
  • Highly secured language
  • Supports many dynamic libraries
  • Open-source availability

An iOS Swift Developer's salary in India ranges between Rs. 2 to 11 lakhs p.a. with an average annual salary of Rs. 4 LPA. Many top companies like Uber, CRED, Lyft, Glovo, Asana, etc., use Swift language.


Go is one of the popular and best programming languages developed by Google, especially for web apps. It is a compiled language and is efficiently helpful for many large apps. Moreover, it is one of the fastest-growing coding languages that support cross-platforms, including desktops. Many giant companies in the IT sector use the Go language in their large-scale projects.

Further, it is the best programming language for beginners to learn basic skills. GoLang helps many popular global companies like Google, Netflix, PayPal, Trivago, YouTube, Walmart, and Twitter. There are multiple job offers available for Golang experts in the market.

Below are the various features of Golang:-

  • Simple Code
  • Supports Testing
  • Excellent performance
  • Easy to learn and maintain
  • Suitable for large-scale projects
  • Cross-platform support
  • Highly compatible and fast

A skilled Golang developer in India earns a salary between Rs. 2 to 24 lakhs per annum. The average annual salary is Rs. 7 LPA, as per AmbitionBox.

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HTML refers to Hyper Text Markup Language, primarily helpful in developing web pages and apps. Adding links, images, videos, and other content to the web page is also helpful. HTML is a simple programming language requiring only a few skills. It helps you to build a basic web page quickly. Those who are new to web development can start with HTML. Learning HTML can open doors for many job opportunities.

Further, HTML is valid for developing structured documents. HTML's major benefit is building standard and well-designed web pages. You can easily maintain and update these web pages.

The following are the features of HTML:-

  • Platform independent
  • User-friendly interface
  • Flexible to design web pages
  • Simple to use
  • Easy to structure and present the web content
  • The latest version is HTML5, which offers multiple features like audio, video, multimedia, local storage, 3D Graphics, etc.
  • These features make it a powerful tool that provides an engaging web experience to its users.

An HTML Developer earns an annual salary of Rs. 1.1 to 6.5 lakhs per year. The annual average salary stands at Rs. 3 lakhs. This salary range will go higher with increasing experience.


Ruby is another best programming languages, relatively simple to learn and developed in the mid-1990s. It is a dynamically typed, Oops language helpful for web development. Also, it helps to implement a popular web application and server-side framework, Ruby on Rails. It is written in the Ruby language. Beginners in the web development field can easily learn Ruby. There are many opportunities for Ruby developers in the market.

The following are the various features of Ruby:-

  • Highly flexible
  • Exception handling
  • Open-source language
  • Used for CGI scripts
  • Easy syntax
  • Supports GUI tools

A Ruby on Rails developer's salary in India is between Rs. 2 to 12.5 Lakhs per year, with an average salary of 5 lakhs p.a.


Kotlin is also the best programming language to learn that runs on JavaVM. It is a statically typed language. Also, it is a general-purpose coding language that is beneficial for web, desktop, and server-side app development, including Android apps. It supports many Google apps today, and many global companies use Kotlin as their primary coding language.

If you have prior experience with programming languages like Java, it will be easier to learn Kotlin. Further, many Android app developers use this coding language popularly.

The following features of Kotlin present it as the best programming language:-

  • Easy language to adopt.
  • Highly compatible with Java.
  • Its code is very expressive and concise.
  • It offers less code with better readability.
  • Helps in developing many backend and web apps along with Android apps.

Moreover, Kotlin Developers are in good demand, where an expert with good skills earns around Rs. 4 lakhs per year on average.

Bottom Line
Thus, above are the top 10 programming languages listed among many other languages available today. The other best programming languages include PHP, CSS, Perl, SQL, Scala, Matlab, etc. These are also famous programming languages and developing web and mobile apps. So, learning any of these programming skills will benefit the aspirants looking forward to building a solid IT career.

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Research Analyst
As a content writer at HKR trainings, I deliver content on various technologies. I hold my graduation degree in Information technology. I am passionate about helping people understand technology-related content through my easily digestible content. My writings include Data Science, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Python, Salesforce, Servicenow and etc.