PostgreSQL Vs Oracle

PostgreSQL is a SQL-compliant and extensible Object-Relational Database Management System. This open-source database system supports JSON and SQL querying and is the main source of data for a wide range of mobile, internet, spatial information, and analytics applications. Since its start, Oracle has positioned itself as being one of the largest RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) manufacturers in the IT market. SQL is the query language for accessing data in Oracle's relational databases. Oracle Database is Oracle Corporation's commercialized, licensed multi-model database management system, and the nation's biggest relational database management system (RDBMS). The open-source PostgreSQL database is creating a significant dent in Oracle's market share. In this post, we compare Oracle vs. PostgreSQL in this post, highlighting the differences between pricing, functionality, and simplicity of need for either programmers or database administrators (DBAs). Let’s go through them in detail.

What is PostgreSQL? 

PostgreSQL is well-known for its open-source platform, which includes all RDBMS functionality. It also adds a variety of features to RDBMS characteristics, such as indexes, data structures, views, events, and atomicity, to mention a few. PostgreSQL is available for use on a variety of systems, including Windows, Linux, Mac, and UNIX, to mention a few. PostgreSQL manages concurrency with Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC). MVCC creates a "Database Snapshot" for each transaction, allowing modifications to be performed without affecting other transactions. This ensures that ACID standards are followed while eliminating the requirement to acquire locks. 

PostgreSQL, or Postgres, describes itself as "the world's most sophisticated open-source relational database." It was built with the intention of being highly expandable and consistent with industry standards. PostgreSQL is indeed an object-relational database, which means that while it's essentially a relational database, it also has features that are more commonly associated with object databases, such as table inheritance and feature overloading. Concurrency is a feature of Postgres that allows it to efficiently handle numerous processes at the same time. It does so without using read locks because it uses Multiversion Concurrency Control (MVCC), maintains the synchronization, coherence, exclusivity, and durability of its transactions, often known as ACID compliance. Although PostgreSQL isn't as popular as MySQL, it still has a variety of third-party libraries and tools, such as pgAdmin and Postbird, that make dealing with it easier.

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What is Oracle?

Larry Ellison and Bob Oates started Oracle, a multinational computer technology business headquartered in California, in 1977. Oracle's multi-model Database Management System is widely used for Data Warehouse management, Online Transaction Processing (OLTP), and mixed database workloads. The Oracle database may be used on a variety of systems, including Unix, LINX, Windows, and Mac OS X. The Oracle database, the first to be created for Enterprise Grid Computing, is the most cost-effective and versatile method of managing data and applications. 

Huge pools of manufacturing servers and customizable storage are developed by Enterprise Grid Computing. This architecture provides an innovative system to be provided quickly from a pool of components. Peak workloads aren't necessary because capacity can be readily transferred or removed from the pool of resources as needed. Provisioning and virtualization distinguish it from other types of computing. Grid Computing tries to solve a few key Enterprise IT problems by creating more durable and cost-effective operating systems. Oracle can supply a huge database at a reduced cost, with added flexibility as well as a superior level of service, thanks to this design. Oracle's on-the-grid computing capabilities focus on offering centralized management, a highly secured framework, universal coverage, and sophisticated development tools to its users.

Difference between PostgreSQL and Oracle 

The fundamental distinction between PostgreSQL and Oracle database management systems would be that PostgreSQL is indeed an open-source database system, whereas Oracle is a private database system. PostgreSQL is an open relational object-oriented database management system created by a global community of volunteers. Oracle is a commercialized relational database management system with a license. Both database systems share common ideas like schemas, tablespaces, and indexes, but they differ in areas like replication and support. Let's look at how two database systems deal with critical activities.

Replication and compatibility

PostgreSQL

  • Streaming Replication ensures high availability.
  • Developers may rely on master-slave replication for flawless backup, work allocation, and clustering performance.
  • Support for the ORM framework
  • Support for a bigger number of APIs than Oracle, allowing it to work with a wider range of applications, add-ons, other SQL settings.
  • JDBC, ODBC, OLEDB, and are examples of database connectivity.
  • Library support on the internet

Oracle

  • Developers may expect perfect performance during backup, job allocation, and clustering thanks to DataGuard Master-slave replication.
  • Replication from master to master
  • Support for the ORM framework
  • JDBC, ODBC, OLEDB, and are examples of database connectivity.
  • Library support on the internet
  • API support is limited compared to PostgreSQL.
Security

PostgreSQL

  • Enables developers to define permissions using roles and inherited roles.
  • Native SSL support is included, which aids in the encryption of server communications.
  • SE-PostgreSQL adds additional access controls based on SELinux's security policy.

Oracle

  • More powerful security features than PostgreSQL.
  • Advanced security settings can only be accessed with higher-cost editions.
  • Through security evaluations, data protection, audits, and monitoring, you may be more resilient.
  • Provides good isolation among pluggable databases and key encryption management that is autonomous.

PostgreSQL Training

  • Master Your Craft
  • Lifetime LMS & Faculty Access
  • 24/7 online expert support
  • Real-world & Project Based Learning
License
  • Oracle stipulated that a license be obtained. PostgreSQL is a free and open-source database.
Written in 
  • Oracle is written in the C and C++ programming languages. PostgreSQL is written in the C programming language.
Pricing 
  • Because PostgreSQL is an Open-Source platform, you can use all of its capabilities for free. The Oracle database comes at a hefty price in terms of both acquisition and product support. Every additional functionality comes at a cost, resulting in an astronomically expensive ownership cost for the Oracle database.
Scalability 

PostgreSQL

  • Because of its open-source nature, it is more scalable.
  • Databases can handle any amount of data, while cluster-based storage systems allow for unlimited expansion.
  • With WAL files, you may maintain integrity throughout scalability operations, despite the fact that these documents are limited to 16 MB

Oracle

  • Because the Standard edition has only four sockets, but the Enterprise edition has more, you'll have had to invest so much in infrastructure to do scaling procedures.
  • With redo logs, you can keep your data safe.
Support

PostgreSQL

  • An active online community that provides free assistance through blogs, email, code, and other avenues.
  • There isn't a contact telephone number in an emergency.
  • Hiring PostgreSQL industry developers for premium assistance is less expensive than hiring an Oracle expert.
  • There are also third-party support providers, like EnterpriseDB & 2nd Quadrant, who provide their specific PostgreSQL distribution.

Oracle

  • Support that is too costly
  • Large businesses must pay Oracle consultants or rely on Oracle support, which can cost up to 25% of the license fees.
  • Telephone assistance is available in an emergency.
Backup & Recovery

PostgreSQL

  •  The data recovery procedure is simple, as it only involves replacing directories and subdirectories, as well as the accompanying WAL files.
  • PGdump & pg base backup are two easy-to-use database backup programs.

Oracle

  • Data recovery procedures can be extremely complicated.
  • RMAN is a database backup tool that is both efficient and simple to use.

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Features of PostgreSQL

  • PostgreSQL strives to follow SQL standards to the letter. PostgreSQL offers 160 of the 179 characteristics needed for proper core SQL:2011 compliance, as well as a vast range of optional capabilities, as per the authorized PostgreSQL documentation.
  • Community-driven and open-source: The source code for PostgreSQL is created by a huge and dedicated community as a fully open-source project. Likewise, the Postgres society preserves and provides a number of online resources that explain how to use the database management system, such as the official paperwork, the PostgreSQL website, and several online forums.
  • Extensible: PostgreSQL's catalog-driven operation and dynamic loading allow users to enhance it dynamically and on the fly. An object code file, including a shared library, can be designated.
  • Data consistency is critical: PostgreSQL has indeed been completely ACID-compliant from 2001 and uses multi-version monetary control to guarantee data consistency, making it an excellent option of RDBMS where data consistency is crucial.

Features of Oracle 

  • Scalability and Performance: Oracle databases are scalable based on usage thanks to characteristics including Real Application Clustering and Portability. It is essential to manage consistency of data and concurrency in a multi-user database, which Oracle considers.
  • High data availability is required for real-time applications. High-performance computing environments are set up to ensure data availability at all times. Data is accessible during planned and unanticipated outages and failures.
  • Backup and Recovery: The design includes comprehensive recovery features for recovering data from virtually any type of failure. For high availability, the database must be recovered quickly in the event of a failure. Parts of the data that haven't been affected are still accessible, while the ones that have been affected are being recovered.
  • Data security: Data security is always the number one priority. Oracle has procedures in place to limit data accessibility. Authentication and editing user activities can help prevent unwanted access and provide users separate access.

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Conclusion

In terms of functionality, performance, and compatibility, PostgreSQL and Oracle are roughly equal. Oracle leads in terms of security, replication, and reliability, whereas PostgreSQL offers a better API, lower support costs, and higher scalability. As database managers, we believe that the databases you choose should be based on the priorities of your company. PostgreSQL is a fantastic choice if you really want an incredibly simple database that you can adapt for your operations and has a cheap Total Cost of Ownership. Oracle provides comprehensive functionality if availability and faultless replication throughout massive activities are the most critical factors for your organization.

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Gayathri
Gayathri
Research Analyst
As a senior Technical Content Writer for HKR Trainings, Gayathri has a good comprehension of the present technical innovations, which incorporates perspectives like Business Intelligence and Analytics. She conveys advanced technical ideas precisely and vividly, as conceivable to the target group, guaranteeing that the content is available to clients. She writes qualitative content in the field of Data Warehousing & ETL, Big Data Analytics, and ERP Tools. Connect me on LinkedIn.