PEGA Interview Questions

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1. Explain in brief about Pega.

Ans: Pega is a platform that allows the user to develop apps, perform integration with the external system and easily implement mobility. It also helps in managing the case life cycle, extensive user interface design, managing the decisions and implementing the DevOps and Robotic Automation, and reporting. It is built on Java and has its latest version as 8.2 which also stands for Build for Change.

2. What are the different types of classes that PRPC support?

Ans: The different types of standard classes available are.

  • Base class: It is the ultimate base class, and Its Child Classes are work-, Data-, Rule-, Assign-, History-, etc. Pega always supports two types of classes which are abstract classes and concrete classes.
  • Abstract Classes: These classes end with ‘-‘ and abstract classes cannot create any work object instances.
  • Concrete Classes:  It does not end with ‘-’, and abstract classes will create work object instances.

3. What is the difference between Page and Page List property, how are they implemented?

Ans: 

  • Page property refers to a particular class and is used to access the property of that class. 
  • Page List Property also refers to a particular class, but it’s a collection of individual pages of the same class which can be accessed through numeric indexes.

4. Explain about Work Object?

Ans: 

  • A work object is the primary unit of work completion in an application and the primary collection of data that a flow operates on. 
  • When an application is used, work objects are created, updated, and eventually closed (resolved). 
  • Every work object has a unique ID (property pyID), an urgency value, and a status (property pyStatusWork).

5. How to create a work object in Pega?

Ans: The following are the steps implemented in creating a work object in Pega.

  • Add a button such as a section or a header.
  • Expand the cell property within the button and click on the action tab.
  • To the button, add an action set.
  • Add focus class as well as flow name to the button.
  • Catch the present work object ID with “Param.prevRecordkey”.
  • Using “Obj-Open-By-Handle”, open the case.
  • Using Page-Copy, copy the data from pagers.

6. Explain about DCO?

Ans: Direct Capture Object is an apple dev tool that includes.

  • Application profiler wizard. 
  • Appl Accelerator. 
  • Appl Doc Wizard. 
  • Appl use cases. 
  • Appl requirements.

7. What is SLA? Where do we use SLA?

Ans: It is the instance of Rule-Obj-Service Level Rule type. It can be added to assignment and work objects.

Service level contains two intervals of time as Goal and Deadline. It indicates the expected time for the assignment and time to resolve the work object. If an assignment isn’t completed before the time limit, the system can automatically raise the assignment and cancel the entire flow, and so on.

8. How to trace SLA in Pega?

Ans: The steps to trace SLA in Pega are:

  • Terminate the agent.
  • Delay it.
  • Initiate the agent.
  • Delay it again.
  • In the requestors, select the delayed requestor and click on the tracer.
  • Send this case to a particular assignment containing the SLA within 60 seconds.

9. What are the different types of layouts available?

Ans: The following are the different layouts types available.

  • Column layout. 
  • Grid layout. 
  • Portal layout. 
  • Dynamic layout.

10. What is the ruleset in Pega?

Ans: A RuleSet in Pega is a collection of rules of business that defines an instance. The ruleset is an essential subset of PegaRULES that is necessary to reference instances in the database.

11. Can we use Rdb-Save along with commit, if yes then why? if not yes then why?

Ans: Yes, commit is used to save the data permanent in the DB.

12. What is Access Group and Access roles and difference between them?

Ans: 

  • Access groups make a set of RuleSet versions available to requestors.
  • Use an access role name to convey permissions (capabilities) to a user or a group of users. Access roles can be referenced
  • in requestor instances, Operator ID instances, in access group instances, in activities, and in queries.

13. What is Covers folder and object and differences among them?

Ans: 

  • Cover is work object that is parent to one or more related work objects.
  • One work party is present in the cover work object and also present in the covered work objects associated with the covers.
  • Folder is work object in concrete class that inherits from the work-Folder-class.
  • A folder object holds a collection of one or more other work objects providing access for reporting.

14. Describe the Access group in Pega and its functionality?

Ans: An access group in Pega is an example of a Data-Admin-Operator-Access Group class that creates a set of RuleSet for the requestors. The developer defines access groups and assigns them to different users. 

Access Group controls the security based on the job functions. It is the instance of Data-Admin-Operator-AccessGroup. Various aspects that can be controlled through an access group are

  • Default and available types of works (also called as work pools).
  • Primary rulesets (Access Control to rulesets).
  • Assigned roles.
  • Portal layout.
  • Default ruleset for making changes (Default ruleset whenever the user creates/ saves as the rule).

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15. Name different types of requestors?

Ans:

  • Browser requestor – Starts with letter ‘H’
  • Application requestor – Starts with the letter ‘A
  • Batch requestor – Starts with letter ‘B’
  • Portal requestor – Starts with the letter ‘P’.

16. What is flow-action?

Ans: It is the instance of the Rule-Obj-Flow Action rule type. It is the one category in UI specifying the choices to the user performing assigned work objects.

Local FA: If action is finished, the work object returns to the same level.

Connector FA: If action is finished, the work object moves to the next level.

17. How a user’s ruleset list is formed?

Ans: The system adds entries it finds from the following sources in the order listed. The system adds entries it finds from these sources in the top of the list.

Requestor: (Data-Admin-Requestor class) — Usually this adds the RuleSets named Pega-RULES, and Pega-IntSvcs and a version or version prefix for these.

Division - As referenced in the Operator-ID instance.

Organization - As referenced in the Operator-ID instance.

Access Group:  As referenced in the Operator-ID instance.

Ruleset Versions - Prerequisite RuleSets and Versions to those already compiled.

Operator ID: If this user has the ability to check out rules, the personal RuleSet (named the same as the Operator ID key) is added last. It is also called a private ruleset.

18. Name the Declarative rules in Pega?

Ans: The declarative rule is an instance of a class derived from Rule-Declared. 

  • They allow for automatic processing of Property values.
  • No need to be called explicitly.
  • No need to run in a sequential fashion.
  • The system manages re-evaluation when it detects a change.

The declarative rules in Pega are.

  • Rule-Declare-Expressions. 
  • Rule-Declare-Index.
  • Rule-Declare-Trigger. 
  • Rule-Declare-OnChange.
  • Rule-Declare-Constraints.

19. What is the difference between Page-Validate and Property-Validate methods?

Ans:

Page-Validate: 

This method is used to validate all the properties present on a page. If a page contains embedded pages, this method works recursively to validate all the properties. This method consumes a lot of system resources and takes more time. If you want to validate specific properties use Obj-Validate method with Rule-Obj-Validate rule.

Property-Validate: 

This method is used to impose restrictions on property value. Use the Edit validate rule along with Property-Validate method to impose restrictions. You can validate multiple properties using the Property-Validate method.

20. Explain about case management in Pega?

Ans: Case management in Pega enables a user to adapt to the unpredictable, event-driven or automatic changes in a case and its processes. It pools real-time adaptation with unique solutions for every case to suit ad-hoc additions. It also saves the case as a template for the future application. 

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21. What are the advantages of case management in Pega?

Ans: The advantages of Pega case management are.

  • Improve the processes of case management with holistic support.
  • Increase the efficacy of case-flow for automatic and dynamic response.
  • Ensures consistency and removes errors with context-based and real-time management.
  • Lessen time, costs and effort needed to implement case management.

22. Explain about the Decision Tree rule.

Ans: 

  • Decision trees are instances of the Rule-Declare-DecisionTree rule type. 
  • Decision tree accepts one input property value but can evaluate numerous properties. It is best used for complex if/then/else statements. 
  • It can capture and present business logic in the form of one or more if/then/else conditions.
  • It can be referred from three other rules from the decision shape of flow rule.
  • In activity, we can evaluate the DecisionTree using Property-Map-DecisionTree. 
  • Decision trees can be referring to Rule-Declare-Expression.

23. Differentiate between Decision Table and Decision Tree.

Ans: 

Decision Table:

  • The logic implemented in the decision table is if, else if condition.
  • In the decision table, if the first condition is true, it will not check the remaining conditions/if the first condition is false, then only it will check the next condition.
  • For simple logic, we can go to the decision table.

Decision Tree:

  • The logic implemented in Decision Tree is if, if condition.
  • In a decision tree, if the first condition is true or false, it will check all conditions and it will return results.
  • For simple logic, we can go for a decision tree.

24. Explain about map value rule.

Ans: A map value rule is a rule that converts one or two input values, such as latitude and longitude numbers, into a calculated result value, such as a city name. The rule uses ranges for the input value or values and a matrix to look up the result. Map value rules are instances of the Rule-Obj-MapValue rule type. This rule type is part of the decision category.

25. What is Portal and where it will be configured?

Ans: It is an Interface that shows up for the client either developer or an end User and entry can be arranged in Access Group. 

Example: Developer entry, chief gateway, client entryway, administrator entrance.

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26. What is Locking in Pega and describe its types?

Ans: Locking is acquiring control over a work object before proceeding to perform any action on it and to ensure only a single user to perform actions on a work object at a time. There are two types of locking as stated below.

  • Default Locking: Only one user can work on a work object at a time. 
  • Optimistic Locking: This is an enhanced feature introduced in Pega 7, where multiple operators work on the same object at a time.

27. Explain about Declare Triggers.

Ans:

  • Declare Trigger runs an activity when instances of a specific class are created, updated, or deleted in the DataBase.
  • Declare Trigger is always Forward Chaining.

28. What is Forward Chaining?

Ans: Forward Chaining provides the automatic calculation of the property by executing the declarative rule when any one of the input property values is changed. 

Example: If the Area property depends on the length and width property, then Forward Chaining causes the area property to be recalculated every time either length or width values change.

29. What is Backward Chaining?

Ans: BackWard chaining provides the automatic calculation of the property by executing the declarative rule when the value is needed for the property, rather than when an input changes. 

Example: If the area property depends on length and width property, the backward chaining causes the area property to be recalculated each time the area property is required. 

30. How do you implement declare index?

Ans: The following are the steps that are implemented for declaring an index.

  • Create a class inheriting from the Index- class. Provide these three properties: pxInsIndexedKey, pxIndexCount, pxIndexPurpose.
  • Create Rule-Declare-Index and provide source page context and source page context class, index class to write.
  • In the list view, the Join tab provides declare index name.

31. What are Pega Guardrails?

Ans: There are ten Pega guardrails as follows.

  1. Adopt an iterative approach.
  2. Establish Robust foundation.
  3. Do nothing that is hard.
  4. Limit custom java.
  5. Built for change.
  6. Design intends on the driven process.
  7. Create easy to read flow.
  8. Monitor performance regularly.
  9. Calculate and edit declaratively not by procedurally.
  10. Keep security object oriented.

32. What is Agent?

Ans: Agents are an internal background process operating on the server to run an activity. Agents are asynchronous and independent. They also perform system tasks such as sending email notifications and synchronizing caches across nodes. Activities they call run individually on their own schedule and one activity doesn’t have to finish another activity. 

33. How do you troubleshoot or trace an agent?

Ans: 

  • < env name=”agent/enable” value=”true” />

Verify the above tag in the “prconfig” file. Verify if the value of the above tag is true or false.

  • In Agent Schedule, schedule tab verifies the checkbox “Enable this agent”, if this option is checked or not. 
  • The same thing also checks in Agents Rule.
  • In Tracer, we can trace the particular operator or particular Agent.
  • In “prsysmgmt” portal, In the Agent Management, select the particular agent and delay the agent and then run the Tracer.
  • We can use the Agent Management link in the System Management Application to monitor and control agent processing. The agent runs on different nodes, selects the particular node and runs the Tracer.

34. What is SLA? Where we use SLA?

Ans: A service level rule is an instance of the Rule-Obj-Service Level rule type. Each service level rule defines one or two time intervals, known as goals and deadlines that indicate the expected or targeted time for the assignment, or time-to-resolve for the work object.

If an assignment isn't completed before the time limit, the system can automatically raise the assignment, and cancel the entire flow, and so on

35. Backward chaining and forward chaining?

Ans: Forward Chaining: It provides the automatic calculations of the property value by executing the declarative rule, when any one of the input property value is changed.

EX:  If the Area property depends on the Length and Width property, then forward chaining causes the Area property recomputed each time either Length/Width value changes.

 Backward Chaining: It provides the automatic calculations of a property value by executing the declarative rule, when a value is needed for   property rather than whenever inputs change.

EX:  If the Area property depends on the Length and Width property, then backward chaining causes the Area property recomputed each time the Area property is required.

36. What is circumstance?

Ans : Circumstance is the optional condition and enhancement of rule resolution alg. diff variations of the rules within the same version created for diff flavors suit for different situation.  Circumstance works during the rule resolution, at run time system first find the rules based on class hierarchy then searches for a rules the requestors session needs, it compares the values of rule set, version, and availability to determine which rule executed.

37. What is Access Group?

Ans: Access Group controls the security basing on the job functions. It is instance of Data-Admin-Operator-Access Group. Various aspects that can be controlled through access group are default and available types of works (also called as work pools), Primary rule sets ( Access Control to rule sets), Assigned roles, Portal layout

38. What is Work list, Work basket?

Ans: Work list is an outstanding assignment waiting for a user to perform them.
Work basket is an instance of Data-Admin-Workbasket class. Work object progress through a flow execution, the system creates assignment. Assignment may be created either with individual user or work basket

39. What is local action?

Ans: When action is finished work object returns to same assignment.

40. Declarative rules?

Ans: Rule-Declare-Expressions, Rule-Declare-Index, Rule-Declare-Trigger, Rule-Declare-On Change 

41. Diff b/w Obj-validate & Property-validate?

Ans: ( obj-validate is we can do validations for multiple properties of a single work object)
(Property-validate is only one property we can do validations for single work object)
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