SAP Interview Questions

Last updated on Nov 07, 2023

SAP is an acronym for Systems Applications and Products that is used for developing software solutions for managing business operations and customer relationships. It consists of fully integrated modules which virtually covers every aspect of business management.

In this article, you can go through the set of SAP interview questions most frequently asked in the interview panel. This will help you crack the interview as the topmost industry experts curate these at HKR training.

Most Frequently Asked SAP Interview Questions

Let us have a quick review of the SAP interview questions.

1. What is ERP?


  • ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning Software. It is an integrated computer-based system developed for managing the organization’s resources in the most effective manner. 
  • ERP makes sure that information flows smoothly and manages the workflows amongst different departments in an organization. 
  • ERP was used for the manufacturing industry during its start and its main purpose was to plan and manage core business like production and financial market. Now it is used for integrating the information across the whole enterprise.

2. What are the different types of ERP?

Ans: The different types of ERP are SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. SAP is the most preferred ERP packages of industries opting for ERP.

3. What Are The Different Functions Used In Sap Script? What Are The Parameters Used In Each Function?

Ans: There are three different functions used in SAP Script:




Parameters in Each Function:










4. What Are The Various Types Of Selection Screen Event?





5. What Are The System Fields? Explain?

Ans: The ABAP system fields are active in all ABAP programs. They are filled by the runtime environment, and you can query their values in a program to find out particular states of the system. Although they are variables, you should not assign your own values to them, since this may overwrite information that is important for the normal running of the program. However, there are some isolated cases in which you may need to overwrite a system variable. For example, by assigning a new value to the field SY-LSIND, you can control navigation within details lists.

6. Difference between Sap Script and Report?


SAP Script – It is the integrated text management system of the SAP R/3 System.

Two types:

PC Editor

Line Editor.

Reports - It is the way to display data fetched from database table onto screen or directly output it to a printer.

Two types:



7. Difference Between Sy-tabix And Sy-index? Where It Is Used? Can You Check Sy-subrc After Perform?


SY-TABIX - Current line of an internal table. SY-TABIX is set by the statements below, but only for index tables. The field is either not set or is set to 0 for hashed tables.

APPEND sets SY- TABIX to the index of the last line of the table, that is, it contains the overall number of entries in the table.

COLLECT sets SY- TABIX to the index of the existing or inserted line in the table. If the table has the type HASHED TABLE, SY-TABIX is set to 0.

LOOP AT sets SY- TABIX to the index of the current line at the beginning of each loop loss. At the end of the loop, SY-TABIX is reset to the value that it had before entering the loop. It is set to 0 if the table has the type HASHED TABLE.

READ TABLE sets SY- TABIX to the index of the table line read. If you use a binary search, and the system does not find a line, SY-TABIX contains the total number of lines, or one more than the total number of lines. SY-INDEX is undefined if a linear search fails to return an entry.

SEARCH FOR sets SY- TABIX to the index of the table line in which the search string is found.

SY_INDEX -  In a DO or WHILE loop, SY-INDEX contains the number of loop passes including the current pass.

8. Explain What Is A Logical Database?

Ans: Logical Databases are special ABAP programs that retrieve data and make it available to application programs.

Use of LDB – is used to read data from database tables by linking them to executable ABAP programs

9. Explain What Are The Events Used For Logical Database?

Ans: There are Two Events:

GET - This is the most important event for executable programs that use a logical database. It occurs when the logical database has read a line from the node and made it available to the program in the work area declared using the statement NODES table Tag. The depth to which the logical database read is determined by the GET statements

PUT - The PUT statement directs the program flow according to the structure of the logical database.

10. What Are The Events Used In Abap In The Order Of Execution?

Ans: The Events used in ABAP are:











11. AT PF

12. GET


14. AT User Command

11. Explain What Are Interactive Reports?

Ans: An output list which displays just the basic details & allow user to interact, so that a new list is populated based on user-selection. With interactive list, the user can actively control data retrieval and display during the session.

12. What Are The System Fields You Have Worked With? Explain?

Ans: I had worked with the following (30) system fields:

1) SY-DBSYS - Central Database

2) SY-HOST - Server

3) SY-OPSYS - Operating System

4) SY-SAPRL - SAP Release

5) SY-SYSID - System Name

6) SY-LANGU - User Logon Language

7) SY-MANDT - Client

8) SY-UNAME - Logon User Name

9) SY-DATLO - Local Date

10) SY-DATUM - Server Date

11) SY-TIMLO - Local Time

12) SY-UZEIT - Server Time

13) SY-DYNNR - Screen Number

14) SY-REPID - Current ABAP program

15) SY-TCODE - Transaction Code

16) SY-ULINE - Horizontal Line

17) SY-VLINE - Vertical Line

18) SY-INDEX - Number of current loop Pass

19) SY-TABIX - Current line of internal table

20) SY-DBCNT - Number of table entries processed

21) SY-SUBRC - Return Code

22) SY-UCOMM - Function Code

23) SY-LINCT - Page Length of list

24) SY-LINNO - Current Line

25) SY-PAGNO - Current Page Number

26) SY-LSIND - Index of List

27) SY-MSGID - Message Class

28) SY-MSGNO - Message Number

29) SY-MSGTY - Message Type

30) SY-SPONO - Spool number during printing

13. Explain What Are The Events In Screen Programming?


PBO (Process before Output) – Before the screen is displayed, the PBO event is processed.

PAI (Process after Input) – When the user interacts with the screen, the PAI event is processed.

POH (Process On Help) - are triggered when the user requests field help (F1). You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.

POV (Process On Value) - are triggered when the user requests possible values help (F4). You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.

14. What Is The Significance Of Hide?

Ans: It stores the click value and display the related record in the secondary list.

15. List the Different Modules in SAP

Ans: The modules in SAP are.

  1. FI (Financial Accounting)
  2. CO (Controlling)
  3. EC (Enterprise Controlling)
  4. TR (Treasury)
  5. IM (Investment Management)
  6. HR (Human Resource)
  7. SD (Sales and Distribution)
  8. MM (Materials Management)
  9. PM (Plant Maintenance)
  10. PP (Production Planning)
  11. QM – Quality Management
  12. BW (Business Warehousing) 

16. Mention what are the different types of variables?

Ans: Various variables that are used in SAP is.

  1. Characteristics variable
  2. Hierarchies
  3. Hierarchy nodes
  4. Text
  5. Formulas
  6. Processing Types
  7. Replacement Path
  8. User entry/default type

17. What are the different SAP products?

Ans: The following are the different products of SAP.

  • SAP R/3: 
  • It succeeds in SAP R/2 and is the market leader in ERP. 
  • R/3 stands for three-tier architecture representing the Presentation, Logic and Data tier. 
  • SAP R/3 has many modules like SD, FI, and HR etc which encompass almost all enterprise departments.
  • My SAP:
  • My SAP is a suite of SAP products. 
  • Apart from SAP R/3 it also includes SRM, PLM, CRM, SCM.

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18. What is Net Weaver?


  • Net weaver is an integrated technology platform such that all the products in the SAP suite can run on a single instance of net weaver known as SAP Web Application Server (SAP WEBAs).
  • SAP data can be accessed using the web (HTTP protocol) or even mobile, this is an advantage of using Net weaver.  Cost-saving is involved in training users on SAP Client-side GUI.

19. Mention some of the setbacks of SAP?


  • It is very expensive.
  • It has a demand for highly trained staff.
  • Implementation time is lengthy.
  • Contains complex Interfaces.
  • Master data is not determined where it actually resides.

20. Mention what are the standard stages of the SAP Payment Run?

Ans: Run the standard stages of SAP while executing SAP Payment which includes.

  • Entering of parameters: It includes entering company codes, vendor accounts, payment methods, etc.
  • Proposal Scheduling: The system proposes a list of invoices to be paid.
  • Payment booking: Booking of the actual payments into the ledger.
  • Printing of Payment forms: Printing of payment forms.

21. Mention what is the difference between the “residual payment” and “partial payment” methods of allocating cash in account receivable?

Ans: The difference between residual payment and partial payment is as follows.

Partial payment: Consider an example, say invoice A456 exits for $100 and customer pays $70. With the partial payment, it offsets the invoice leaving a remaining balance $30.

Residual Payment: In this payment, the invoice A456 is cleared for the full value $100 and a new invoice line item is produced for the remaining balance of $30.

22. List out the different types of source systems in SAP?

Ans: The different types of source system in SAP includes the following.

  • SAP R/3 source system
  • SAP BW
  • Flat files
  • External Systems

23. How do an application, presentation and database servers work in SAP R/3?


  • The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application server and the message server. 
  • The Application programs in an R/3 system runs on application servers. 
  • The application servers communicate with presentation components, databases and also with each other by using the message server. 
  • All the data are stored in a centralized server, which is known as a database server.

24. Mention what BDC stands for? How many methods of BDC are there?

Ans: BDC stands for Batch Data Communication. The methods of BDC are.

  1. Direct Input Method.
  2. Batch Input Session Method.
  3. Call transaction Method.

25. Explain what should be the approach for writing a BDC program?

Ans: The approach to writing a BDC program is to.

  1. Create a recording.
  2. Convert the legacy system data to a flat-file into the internal table referred to as “Conversion.”
  3. Perform “SAP Data Transfer” by transferring the Flat file into the SAP system. 
  4. Type CALL TRANSACTION or CREATE SESSIONS depending upon the BDC.

26. What is Metadata, Master data and Transaction data?


Meta Data: It is the data about Data. Metadata explains about the structure of data or MetaObjects.

Master Data: Master Data is the key business information like Customer information, Employee, Materials etc. It is more like a reference data. 

Example: If a customer orders 10 units of your product instead of asking the customer for his shipping address 10 times, the same can be referenced from the Customer Master Data.

Transaction Data: This is data related to day to day transactions.

27. Can we run a business warehouse without SAP R/3 implementation?

Ans: Yes, you can run a business warehouse without the implementation of SAP R/3. Simply transfer structures associated with business warehouse data sources such as ODS tables, Infocube to the inbound data files or use third-party tools to connect your flat files and other data sources.

28. Mention the types of services that are used to deal with communication?

Ans: There are two types of services to deal with communication as follows:

  1. Message Service: This service is used by the application servers for exchanging the short internal messages.
  2. Gateway Service: CPI-C protocol is used by this service which allows the communication between R/3 and external applications. 

29. Mention what are reason codes used in Account Receivable?

Ans: “Reason Codes” are tags allocated to describe under/overpayments during the allocation of incoming customer payments. The reason codes should not be mixed up with the “void reason codes” when it is used while outgoing cheques are produced.

30. Explain what is an update type with reference to a match code ID?


  • If the data in one of the base tables of a match code ID changes, then the match code data has to be updated. 
  • The update type specifies when the match-code has to be updated and how it should be done. 
  • The update type also defines which method is to be used for building match-codes.

31. Explain what is meant by “Business Content” in SAP?

Ans: Business Content in SAP is a pre-configured and pre-defined model of information contained in the SAP warehouse which can be used directly or with desired modification in different industries.

32. From health and safety points what are things to be taken care of while Warehouse Transportation?

Ans: Don’t leave items in aisles on the floor or perched insecurely on a surface.

  • Clean up all spills immediately.
  • Don’t block fire exits, sprinklers or fire extinguishers.
  • Put items in their assigned places.
  • Don’t leave sharp tools or cutters perching out.
  • Keep cord and wires off the floor.
  • Report loose flooring or tripping hazards.
  • Dispose of trash immediately in proper containers.

33. Explain what is blind shipment and bread bulk?


Blind shipment:

When the source of the supplier is hidden from the customer, such shipment is referred to as a blind shipment.

Bread bulk:

It is referred to overseas shipments, where the cargo being shipped consists of smaller units like crates, bales, cartons and so on.

34. Explain what is a chargeback?

Ans: When any shipment doesn’t meet the terms and conditions of the customer a financial penalty is charged against the supplier by customer.  This charge is referred to as a chargeback.  

Example: The lack of proper packaging or labelling.

35. Explain what is meant by Reverse Logistics?

Ans: Reverse Logistics is the collection of all processes that come into play for goods which move in the reverse directions that means transportation of goods to the business.

36. Explain what is the difference between logistics and transport?


Logistics: It is referred to as the procedure of managing goods, resources and information from the source to the consumers in a manner that it fits the requirements of both parties.

Transportation: It is the movement of the goods from one point to the other. It is considered as a part of logistics.

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37. Explain what is the meaning of Triage?

Ans: The sorting of products or goods based on their condition or quality is referred to as Triage.  Some of the goods need to be repaired and sent back, others have to be sold off as used or defective goods.

38. Explain what is Warehouse Tracking System? How does it work?

Ans: Warehouse Tracking System or WTS is a software application which is specifically designed for the warehouse industry. It uses the system of barcode labels which allows tracking the product movement, audits and shipments easily.  WTS enables identifying each piece of stock by a unique serial number.

39. How can you generate invoice with WTS?

Ans: There are two ways of generating an invoice with WTS.

  1. Assigning it directly with the orders that you are working on.
  2. Export the order to QuickBooks and create the invoice there.

40. What are the types of SAP S/4HANA Users?

Ans: The different types of SAP S/4HANA Users are:

  • Occasional: The users of these types occasionally use the system and requires simple and easy-to-use applications.
  • Expert: The users of these types is a fully trained SAP user who knows the system effectively and uses multiple systems and different UIs.
  • Developer: These users are responsible for adaption and extension of existing applications. These users have to access several applications with different user interfaces.

41. What are the main supply chain challenges companies face today?

Ans: These are the big challenges that companies will face today.

  1. Ignoring the continued growth of e-commerce as a channel in the industrial sector.
  2. No attention to the potential risk like volatile transportation costs.
  3. Over expectation that supply chain management technologies will fix everything.
  4. Over-reliance on past performance to predict future sales.
  5. Increase complexity added to supply chain operations with the implementation of unnecessary technologies.
  6. Lack of understanding of the full capacities of suppliers and service.

42. What are the different resource types in SAP Supply Chain?

Ans: Resource type defines how the system plans the resources as per the planning parameters which are provided. There are various planning parameters for each resource type. When you transfer work centres from the ERP system, the following resource types are already created.

  • Single-Activity and Multi-activity Resource.
  • Single-Mixed and Multi mixed Resources.
  • Line Resource.

43. What Is An Abap Instance?

Ans: When you call a function module, an instance of its function group plus its data, is loaded into the memory area of the internal session. An ABAP program can load several instances by calling function modules from different function groups.

44. What Are The Contents In Technical Specifications?

Ans: There are five contents in Technical Settings:

  • Data Class
  • Size Category
  • Buffering Permission
  • Buffering Type and
  • Logging.

45. What Is Function Group? Difference between Function Group and Function Module?

Ans: Function Groups act as containers for Function Modules that logically belong together.

Function Groups

1) These cannot be defined in a Function Module.
2) It cannot be called.
3) They are containers for Function Module.

Function Modules

1) These must be defined in a Function Group.
2) It can be called from any program.
3) They are not containers for Function Group.

46. What Function Does Data Dictionary Perform?

Ans:  Central information repository for application and system data. The ABAP Dictionary contains data definitions (metadata) that allow you to describe all of the data structures in the system (like tables, views, and data types) in one place. This eliminates redundancy.

47. Difference between Domain and Data Element? What Are Aggregate Object?


Domain - Specifies the technical attributes of a data element - its data type, length, possible values, and appearance on the screen. Each data element has an underlying domain. A single domain can be the basis for several data elements. Domains are objects in the ABAP Dictionary.

Data Element - Describes the business function of a table field. Its technical attributes are based on a domain, and its business function is described by its field labels and documentation.

Aggregate Object – Views, Match Code and Lock objects are called aggregate objects because they are formed from several related table.

48. What Is View? Different Types of View. Explain?

Ans: View - A view is a virtual table containing fields from one or more tables. A virtual table that does not contain any data, but instead provides an application-oriented view of one or more ABAP Dictionary tables.

Different Types of View:

  • Maintenance
  • Database – It is on more than two tables.
  • Projection – It is only on one table.
  • Help

49. Can You Print Decimals In Type N? What Is Difference Between Float And Packed Data Type?

Ans: No, we cannot print decimals in type N because decimal places are not permitted with N data type.

Float Data Type: It cannot be declared in Parameters.

Packed Number: It can be declared in Parameters.

For Example ,

C = A + B.

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About Author

Kavya works for HKR Trainings institute as a technical writer with diverse experience in many kinds of technology-related content development. She holds a graduate education in the Computer science and Engineering stream. She has cultivated strong technical skills from reading tech blogs and also doing a lot of research related to content. She manages to write great content in many fields like Programming & Frameworks, Enterprise Integration, Web Development, SAP, and Business Process Management (BPM). Connect her on LinkedIn and Twitter.

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