CCNA Interview Questions

Last updated on Nov 18, 2023

Cisco Systems' CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) certification is a popular qualification for computer network engineers. Entry-level network engineers, network administrators, network support engineers, and network specialists are all eligible to take the exam. It is beneficial to become acquainted with a wide range of networking principles, such as OSI models, IP addressing, network security, and so on.

In this article, you can go through the set of CCNA interview questions most frequently asked in the interview panel. This will help you crack the interview as the topmost industry experts curate these at HKR training.

Most Frequently Asked CCNA  Interview Questions

Let us have a quick review of the CCNA interview questions.

What is the Data Link's purpose?

Ans: It is the responsibility of the Data Link layer to ensure that messages are delivered to the relevant device. Framing is another function of this layer.

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What is the LLC sublayer's role?

Ans: Logical Link Control is the acronym for the LLC sublayer. It can give an application developer optional services. One way is to use stop/start codes to offer flow control to the Network layer. Error correction is another service that the LLC can provide.

How do you set up a Cisco router to route IPX routes?

Ans: The first step is to use the "IPX routing" command to enable IPX routing. After that, a network number and encapsulation mechanism are assigned to each IPX network interface.

What are the various types of cables used in cable routing?

Ans: The following are three different types of cables that are used:

  • Straight cable(switch-router)
  • Cross cable(PC-PC, switch-switch)
  • Rollover cable(Console port to computer)

What is a Frame Relay?

Ans: Frame Relay is a WAN technology that creates and maintains virtual circuits to facilitate connection-oriented communication. It operates at the Data Link and Physical Layers and has a high-performance rating.

What are the different IPX access lists?

Ans: IPX access lists are classified into two types.

  1. Standard.
  2. Extended.

Only the source or destination IP address can be filtered using a standard Access List. When filtering a network, an Extended Access List uses the source and destination IP addresses, port, socket, and protocol.

Mention the private IP ranges?

Ans: Ranges for private IP are

  • Class A: –
  • Class B: –
  • Class C: –

What is OSPF? Describe it.

Ans: OSPF is an acronym for Open Shortest Path First. It is a link-state routing protocol that employs the Dijkstra algorithm to connect to a wide number of networks with no restriction on the number of hops.

Mention what the EIGRP protocol's matrices are?

Ans: EIGRP protocol consists of

  • Bandwidth
  • Load
  • Delay
  • Reliability
  • MTU
  • Maximum Transmission Unit

. What exactly is PoE (Power over Ethernet)?

Ans: The IEEE standard defines it as a method of supplying electric power to network devices via an existing data connection.

. What is the purpose of PING?

Ans: PING is an acronym for Packet Internet Groper. It is used to determine whether a host is reachable via an Internet Protocol (IP) network. When data is delivered over the network using IP addresses, the receiver will PING the sender to receive the data.

. What is Route Poisoning?

Ans: Poisoning a route is the process of making it unreachable by inserting a table entry of 16 into it. This is done to avoid issues with route updates being inconsistent.

. In CCNA, how many different ways can data be transferred?

Ans: There are three methods for transferring data:

  • Simplex
  • Half-duplex
  • Full-duplex

. What is ARP and RARP?

Ans: The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol that maps an IP address to a physical machine.

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a protocol that maps a MAC address to an IP address.

. Define the Autonomous System (AS).

Ans: It might be a single network or a collection of networks controlled by a single directive. It's known as an Autonomous System Number, and it's specified by a unique number or code (ASN). It is also referred to as a routing domain.

Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) is used to communicate between networks within an AS.

. Define Topology?

Ans: It's a set of elements arranged in a precise order.
Topology can be divided into several types:

  • Bus
  • Star
  • Mesh
  • Ring
  • Hybrid
  • Tree

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. In a Cisco router, how many different types of memories are used?

Ans: The following are the various types of memory that are used:

  • Flash memory: It's where the system's operating system (IOS) is stored. It's a reprogrammable memory chip with electronic erasability.
  • RAM: The configuration file that is currently being executed is saved here. When a router is restarted or turned down, it loses its data.
  • NVRAM: When the router boots up, the IOS reads the startup configuration file.
  • ROM: Read-Only Memory. If the router is shut down or restarted, the information is saved. It keeps track of the POST diagnostics instructions.

. What do we check while configuring the server?

Ans: The following parameters are verified during configuring:

  • Verify whether or not the LAN is connected.
  • The root file system should be NTFS.
  • For communication, the server should have a static IP address.

. What is the difference between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA?

Ans: In local area networking, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a media access control method. When a collision happens, it uses early Ethernet technology to overcome it.

In the wireless network, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is utilized to avoid collisions.

. While operating a large network, why is network segmentation a good idea?

Ans: Segmenting a network can help a network administrator minimize network traffic while simultaneously guaranteeing that all users have access to high bandwidth. This results in improved performance, which is particularly important for a developing network.

. What does VTP stand for? What are the types of VTP?

Ans: VTP is an acronym for Virtual Trunk Protocol. The VTP types are:


. Define the term ACL. What are ACL types?

Ans: ACL is an acronym for Access Control List. It's a set of commands that a router uses to filter packets. The ACL types are as follows:


. What is the public IP address range?

Ans: The following is the range of public IP addresses:

  • -
  • -
  • -
  • -
  • -
  • -
  • -

. Describe the advantages of VLANs?

Ans: VLANs enable groups other than physical location to create collision domains. VLANs can be used to create networks based on a variety of criteria, including function, hardware type, and protocol, among others. When opposed to traditional LANs, where collision domains are always related to a physical location, this is a significant advantage.

. Mention what does data packets consist of?

Ans: The sender's information, the recipient's information, and the data contained in a data packet make up a data packet. It also includes a numeric identification number that identifies the packet and order number. When data is transferred across the network, it is segmented into data packets. In a brief, data packets include the information and routing configuration for the message you're sending.

. Explain the distinction between a

Ans: At the data link layer, a broadcast domain is a logical division of a computer network in which all nodes can communicate with each other through broadcast.

A collision domain is a network segment where data packets can collide while being sent over a common medium or through repeaters.

. What are the various IP address classes and ranges?

Ans: There are five classes of IP addresses:

  • Class A ranges between 1 - 126.
  • Class B ranges between 127 - 191.
  • Class C ranges between 192 - 223.
  • Class D ranges between 224 - 239.
  • Class E ranges between 240 - 254.

. What is LAN Switching?

Ans: In Local Area Networks, LAN switching is a type of packet switching. It's an essential component of most networks because it helps to boost LAN efficiency and addresses the existing bandwidth problems. It allows several users to communicate with one another directly. A system of simultaneous point-to-point connections between pairs of devices is created through LAN switching. It offers a collision-free network and also high-speed connectivity.

. Explain the benefits of LAN Switching?

Ans: LAN Switching has the following advantages:

  • The scalability of the network has been increased.
  • Performance improvements in bandwidth.
  • Multiple simultaneous connections.
  • Congestion and transmission delays are reduced.
  • There are no singular points of failure.
  • Data transmission in full-duplex mode.
  • Improved security and manageability.

. What are the main benefits of employing switches?

Ans: When a switch receives a signal, it constructs a frame using the signal's bits. It acquires access and reads the destination address using this method, following which it sends the frame to the proper port. Instead of broadcasting data across all ports, this is an extremely efficient method of data transmission.

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. In the CISCO Catalyst 5000, which LAN switching method is used?

Ans: The Store-and-forward switching method is used by the CISCO Catalyst 5000. Before selecting whether or not to forward the data frame, it saves the full frame to its buffers and runs a CRC check.

. What's the difference between a baud rate and a bit rate?

Ans: A bit rate is the total number of bits transferred in one second, whereas a baud rate is the number of signal units per second needed to represent those bits.

Baud rate=bit rate / N, where N = Each signal shift represents a number of bits.

. Briefly explain the conversion steps in data encapsulation.

Ans: Data from the end-user is translated to segments from the perspective of a data transmitter. After that, segments are transferred to the subsequent tiers, where they are transformed into packets or datagrams. Before being sent to the network interface, these packets are transformed into frames. Finally, before data transfer, frames are transformed to bits.

. What are the data encapsulation conversion steps?

Ans: The data encapsulation conversion steps include:

  • Layer one, two, and Three (Application/presentation/session): The user's alphanumeric input is converted to Data.
  • Layer Four (Transport): Data is converted into small segments.
  • Layer Five (Network): Data converted into packets or datagrams and Network header is added.
  • Layer Six (Data Link): Datagrams or packets are built into frames.
  • Layer Seven (Physical): Frames are converted into bits.

. What is CDP?

Ans: CDP is an acronym for Cisco Discovery Protocol. It's a Layer 2 proprietary protocol that only Cisco routers and switches support. This protocol gathers data from devices that are directly connected.

It finds neighboring devices, determines how they're set up, and allows the systems to learn about one another through various network-layer protocols. CDP makes it easier to manage an accurate inventory of Cisco network devices.

. Explains the functions of CDP?

Ans: The following information is discovered by the CDP:

  • Cisco devices are running an iOS version.
  • IP addresses 
  • The hardware platform of devices
  • Interface details
  • Hostname
  • VTP domain
  • Duplex setting
  • Native VLAN

. What is HDLC?

Ans: The HDLC protocol stands for High-Level Data-Link Control. It's a widely used ISO-standard bit-oriented Data Link layer protocol for data transmission. It can be used for both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint networking.

HDLC divides data into frames, allowing devices to control the flow of data. The frame is sent over the network to its intended destination, which checks that it is successfully received.

. Explain the advantages of HDLC?

Ans: The following are some of the advantages of HDLC:

  • Both half-duplex and full-duplex communication is supported.
  • Provides complete data transparency.
  • For synchronous data communication, it provides flexibility, reliability, and efficiency.
  • Both synchronous and asynchronous communication is supported.

. What are the various types of passwords that can be used to secure a CISCO router?

Ans: There are five different kinds of passwords that can be used to secure a CISCO router:

  • Console
  • Aux
  • VTY
  • Enable password
  • Enable secret

. What's the difference between Privileged Mode and User Mode?

Ans: The following are the distinctions between User Mode and Privileged Mode:

User Mode

  • When using a Cisco router, it is used for regular tasks.
  • It allows you to view system information, connect to distant devices, and check the router's status, among other things.

Privileged Mode

  • Provides a wide range of options, including those available in User mode.
  • It enables users to configure the router, as well as perform tests and debugging.

. Which IP address is used for loopback addresses and why?

Ans: The loopback address is set to A loopback address is a unique IP address that allows a network administrator to treat a local system as if it were a remote machine. Local testing is also done with it. On the loopback network, every traffic sent by a computer application is directed to the same computer.

. What is the key preferred standpoint of utilizing switches?

Ans: On some ports, the switch does not communicate. They may be monitored and vlans taxis established. They are speedy and can store MAC addresses. They also don't separate the speed on each port. The main advantage of using switches is that each switch port has its impact area, which eliminates the possibility of casing crashes. It advances the bundles based on the destination address, obviating the need for parcels to be sent to all ports as well as center points.

. What exactly is a checksum?

Ans: A checksum is a blunder discovery approach in which the transmitter calculates a numerical reward based on the number of set or unconnected bits in a message and sends it along with each message outline. A similar checksum work (recipe) is connected to the message edge at the collector end to retrieve the numerical esteem. If the received checksum esteem matches the provided esteem, the communication is considered successful and error-free. A hash total is another name for a checksum.

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. What advantages can Distributed Processing provide?

Ans: Disseminated information handling is a PC organizing technique in which multiple PCs from diverse locations share PC processing capabilities. This isn't a solitary, centralized server that oversees and manages all associated frameworks. PCs that involve the appropriated information handling system are situated at various areas yet interconnected by methods for remote or satellite.

. In the OSI Layer, what is the TCP/IP Layer?

Ans: The TCP/IP Layer in the OSI is largely used to transport packets from one machine to another through seven layers. The seven sorts of layers are as follows:

  • Application layer
  • Presentation layer
  • Session Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Network layer
  • Datalink Layer
  • Physical layer

. What do static routing, RIP, EIGRP, and OSPF mean in terms of AD?

Ans: The following are the benefits of static routing, RIP, EIGRP, and OSPF:

  • 1-STATIC
  • 120-RIP
  • OSPF 110

. What is the difference between the switch, hub, and router?



A single broadcast domain and collision domain exist in the hub. Anything that enters one port is forwarded to the others.


It's a filtering and forwarding device for packets among LAN segments. A single broadcast domain and multiple collision domains are present on switches. It works at the data connection layer 2 and layer 3 and supports any packet protocol.


A router is a device that sends data packets through a network.

. What is the difference between LAN, MAN, and WAN?


LAN: It's a type of local area network in which computers and network devices are linked together, usually within a single room or building. LAN connections must be fast. For instance, Ethernet.

MAN: It is a metropolitan area network in which multiple buildings in the same city are connected.  For instance, the IUB Network.

WAN: It is a type of wide-area network in which the networks are restricted to a single company or organization but can be accessed by the general public. It connects a number of LANs.The WAN connection is both fast and expensive. For instance, the Internet.

. What's the difference between Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast, and Any cast?


Unicast: It is the transmission of data from a single source to a single destination. In Unicast, packets transmitted from the sender include the receiver's data address, allowing them to be sent directly to the receiver.

Broadcast: It is the transmission of communications from one sender to as many receivers as feasible. It can only be used on a local network. Due to a large amount of unrelated and unneeded data on the public internet, data broadcasting is not possible.

Multicast: It is the sending and receiving of messages between a single sender and multiple recipients. Your receiving clients and the type of broadcasting are determined by the network settings in multicast.

Anycast: It is the transmission of data from one host to another. TCP and UDP protocols are used. Every host that requests it receives a copy of each data packet.

. Can an OSPF default be started in the framework based on external data on a switch that doesn't have a default?

Ans: OSPF creates a default only if it is configured with the default-data begin direction and if there is a default configuration in the case from another process. OSPF's default course is Use the direction default-data start consistently if you require an OSPF-empowered switch to generate a default course even if it doesn't have a default.


These interview questions and answers will assist anyone in successfully clearing a CCNA interview, whether they are fresher or experienced. And these are the interview's most commonly asked questions and responses. We hope that this article has given you a better understanding of the fundamentals and advanced principles of networking.

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