Nowadays, with the increase in technology, we rely on the Internet to carry out our business activities. As a result, Cybersecurity risks have been increasing drastically. Cybercriminals have more scope to steal, hack and exploit data for wrongful use. So, Companies are actively trying to implement measures that can help protect their data that are essential for the company. This resulted in cybersecurity jobs, increasing the demand for Cybersecurity professionals. To grab this opportunity, you need to excel in your interview. So to help you in this aspect, our experts have come up with the frequently asked cybersecurity interview questions. So Let's get started with the basic level questions.
Ans: Cybersecurity is about protecting the software, hardware, and data from attackers. Cybersecurity focuses on protecting against cyber-attacks such as access, modification, or destruction of sensitive information.
Ans: Cryptography is a technique that is used to protect information against third parties referred to as adversaries. Cryptography enables both the sender and the recipient of a message to read the details of the message.
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Ans: The cyberattacks most likely to affect a company are:
Ans: MITM (Man-in-the-middle) is a kind of attack in which an attacker enters in between the communicating parties and steals the information.
We can prevent MITM attacks by following these methods:
Ans: Port scanning is the technique that is used for identifying open ports and the service available on the host. Port scanning is used by Hackers to search for information that may be useful to exploit vulnerabilities. Port Scanning is also used by Administrators for checking network security policies. Commonly used port scanning techniques include:
Ans: Main cyber security elements include:
Information security: Information security involves data protection like customer data, employee login data, and any other data that is essential to the business, like intellectual property data and software development codes.
Network Security: The aim is to protect your company's network like Wi-Fi and Internet from hackers. This is also known as perimeter security.
Application Security: Companies require a secure application for protection against cyber attacks.
End-user education: To have a strong cybersecurity measure in a company, it is essential to educate all employees on cybersecurity. They must be aware of different cyber security threats and the way they can address them.
Operational Security: It is used for the protection of the functions of the company and monitors vital information to detect gaps in the current methods. Business continuity planning is the analysis of the way operations could be affected by a cyber-attack and the way companies can overcome that kind of attack without a significant impact on the business operations.
Leadership commitment: Without proper leadership, the development, implementation, and maintenance of a cybersecurity program will become challenging.
Ans: The main objective of cybersecurity is the protection of data. To protect data from cyberattacks, the security department provides a triangle of three related principles. This principle is called the CIA triad. Confidentiality, integrity, and availability are all elements of the CIA model. It is a security paradigm which guides people through numerous aspects of IT security. The purpose of the CIA model is to assist organizations in developing policies for the architecture of their information security. One or more of the security principles were violated when a security breach was identified.
Ans: CIA refers to Confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
Ans: Traceroute is a tool which displays the path of the packets. It lists out all the points through which the package passes. This is especially useful when the package does not reach its destination. It is used to verify the point where the connection breaks or stops to determine the point of failure.
Ans: Brute Force is a process to find good references by repeatedly trying all possible permutations and combinations of references. Generally, a Brute force attack will be automated when the software or tool automatically attempts to log in with a list of information. There are several ways you can stop Brute Force attacks. Some are as follows:
Ans: There are different options for resetting the BIOS password. A few of them are listed below:
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IDS refers to Intrusion Detection Systems. It analyzes and monitors network traffic looking for signals which attackers are trying to infiltrate or steal information from your network with the help of a known cyber threat. It detects various activities like malware, security policy violations, and port scanners comparing the existing network activity to a threat database known.
IPS refers to the Intrusive Prevention System. It is located in between the internal network and the outside world within the same network zone as a firewall. When a packet represents the known security threat, the IPS will proactively ban network traffic according to a security profile.
The main difference between IPS and IDS is that IPS is a control system while IDS is a monitoring system. IDS does not alter network packets, while IPS blocks packet delivery based on packet content, in the same way that a firewall blocks traffic based on the IP address.
Ans: Vulnerability assessment is the process for detecting faults on the target. The organization knows that its system or network has defects or weaknesses and wants to identify those defects and prioritize them to correct them.
The penetration test involves identifying vulnerabilities in the target. Here the organization will implement all possible security measures and would like to test whether there is some alternative way to hack their system or network.
Ans: HIDS refers to Host ID, and NIDS refers to the Network ID. Both of them are intrusion detection systems and are used for the same purpose, that is, for the detection of intrusions. The main difference among them is that the HIDS is configured to a special host or device and monitors the traffic of a specific device, and will stop the system activities. At the same time, NIDS is established on a network and controls the traffic on all devices within the network.
Ans: SSL refers to Secure Sockets Layer. It is a security protocol which permits encrypted connections over the Internet. It is used for preserving the Confidentiality of data and protecting information within online transactions. The steps involved in creating an SSL connection are as follows:
Ans: SSL is a secure technology which enables two or more parties to communicate in a secure manner on the Internet. To assure security, it operates on HTTP. It functions in the Presentation layer.
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HTTPS stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. It is a combination of HTTP and SSL, which utilizes encryption to build a more secure browsing experience. The functioning of HTTPS involves the four upper layers of the OSI model - the transportation layer, session layer, presentation layer, and application layer.
When it comes to security, SSL is more secure than HTTPS.
Ans: SQL injection attack is a type of cyberattack where a hacker will manipulate the data that is sent to the server to run malicious SQL code to monitor the database server of a web application, modifying, accessing, and deleting the unauthorized data. SQL injection attack is primarily used to take control of the database servers. We can avoid SQL injection attacks by using these methods:
Ans: OSI refers to Open Systems Interconnection. The OSI model demonstrates the way applications communicate on the network. It is important to understand and isolate the problem source and is commonly used for the purpose of troubleshooting. There are seven layers in the OSI model. They are:
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Ans: Symmetric encryption needs only one key for encryption and decryption. It is preferable to transfer huge amounts of data because it is quicker.
Asymmetric encryption needs a public key and a private key for data encryption and decryption.
It is used to transfer small data and is slower compared to symmetric encryption.
Ans: Salting involves the addition of extra values to expand the password length and alter its hash value. It is responsible for protecting the password. It adds complexity to the password and prevents hackers from guessing simple passwords easily.
Ans: Steam cipher is a method of encryption in which plain digits are combined with the pseudo-random stream to generate ciphertext one bit at a time. It is used for hardware implementation and is used within the Secure Sockets Layer.
A Block cipher is a method of encryption where a cryptographic key and algorithm are implemented to a block of data, like a group, in order to generate the ciphertext. It is used to encrypt files and databases.
Ans: ARP refers to the Address Resolution Protocol. It is a protocol used to map an IP address to a recognized physical machine address on the LAN. When the incoming packet sent to a host machine on a given local network reaches a gateway, the gateway instructs the ARP program to locate a MAC address or a physical host which matches the IP address. The ARP program searches the ARP cache and, if the address is found, gives it so that the packet will be converted to the appropriate format and length and sent to the machine. If no IP address input is found, ARP will release a special format request packet to every machine on the LAN to identify whether a machine knows it has that associated IP address.
Ans: Limiting users' access to a set of services in the Local Area Network is known as port blocking. Halting the source so that the destination node cannot be accessed through the ports. Since the app runs on ports, ports are therefore blocked to limit access filling security gaps in the network infrastructure.
Ans: The CSRF is known as Cross-site Request Forgery, in which an attacker deceives a victim to act in his or her name. The following steps can be taken to prevent CSRF attacks:
Use of the latest antivirus program to block malicious scripts.
When you authenticate on your bank site or carry out financial transactions on another website, don't navigate to other sites or don't open emails, which makes you run malicious scripts while authenticating to a financial site.
Do not save your login or password in your browsers for financial transactions.
Turn off the script in your browsers.
Ans: A botnet is also referred to as a robot network. It is a malicious program that infects computer networks and puts them under the control of only one attacker, referred to as bot herder. A bot is a single machine which is controlled by bot herders. The attacker acts like a central party that can command each bot to carry out coordinated and criminal actions.
The botnet is a massive attack as a bot herder will be able to control millions of bots parallelly. Every botnet can be updated by the attacker to change how they behave quickly.
Ans: If two users have the same password, it results in the same password hashes being created. In this situation, an attacker can easily decode the password by running a dictionary or a brute force attack. In order to prevent this, a salted hash is used.
It is used to Randomize hashes by adding a random string to the password prior to hashing. As a result, two different hashes are created, which may be used to protect users' passwords available in the database from the attacker.
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Ans: Cognitive cyber-security is a means of using human-like thinking mechanisms and turning them into artificial intelligence technologies to identify security threats. The aim is to transfer human knowledge to the cognitive system that can serve as a self-learning system. It enables us to identify threats, assess their impact, and implement reactive strategies.
Ans: Cross-Site Scripting is also called a client-side injection attack. Its purpose is to run malicious scripts on the web browser of a victim by malicious code injection.
Cross-Site Scripting may not be possible using the following practices:
All the above are the frequently asked cyber security Interview Questions. I hope these questions and answers will help you to clear your interview related to cyber security. If you could not find the answer to any question related to cyber security, feel free to comment in the comment section.
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