Devops Interview Questions

Cracking the DevOps interview, on the other hand, is difficult and takes extensive preparation. To assist you, we've compiled a list of the Top DevOps Interview Questions and Answers, which have been designed by industry specialists and will undoubtedly help you advance in DevOps development. 

->Most Frequently Asked DevOps Interview Questions and Answers for Beginners:

->Most Frequently Asked DevOps Interview Questions and Answers for Intermediate:

We segregated our best devOps interview questions into the following ways: 

DevOps Interview Questions and Answers for Beginners:

1. What is meant by DevOps?


Ans: DevOps is the union of process, technology, and people to persistently give value to clients. It is a compound of development (Dev) and operations (Ops). 

DevOps allows formerly compartmentalized roles—IT operations, development, security, and quality engineering—to communicate and coordinate to develop better, more cost - effective products. Teams may be  better responsive to customer requirements, build confidence in the apps they develop, and enhance organizational performance faster by implementing a DevOps environment and using DevOps principles and technologies.


The integration of the development processes and operations is what DevOps is all about. A 22 per cent increase in software quality and a 17 per cent increase in application deployment frequency, as well as a 22 per cent increase in customer satisfaction. As a result of effective DevOps adoption, sales increased by 19%.

2. Explain why Devops?

Ans: Before we go any further, it's important to understand why DevOps is preferable to other approaches. Instead of providing large feature sets, companies are attempting to deliver small enhancements to clients via a succession of release trains. There are many advantages to doing so, including improved software quality and faster client feedback.


All of these advantages lead to increased client happiness, which is the primary goal of every product development effort. To do so, businesses must:

  • The operating and development teams were completely isolated from one another.
  • Based on the design phase, deployment and testing are carried out. As a result, they took longer than the initial build cycles.
  • Without DevOps, team members waste a significant amount of time developing, testing, and deploying rather than building the product.
  • Defects in production are caused by manual code deployment.
  • The coding and operations teams work on separate timeframes and are out of sync, causing even more delays.


DevOps aids in the fulfilment of all of these needs, resulting in smooth software delivery. The DevOps technique has been adopted by full-fledged enterprises such as Amazon, Etsy, and Google, resulting in hitherto uncharted performance levels.

Organizations that use the DevOps methodology can complete  1000s of deployments on a given day. Furthermore, while providing top-notch stability, reliability, and security.

3. How does HTTP work?

Ans: Like most other protocols, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) operates on a client-server architecture. By sending hypertext information between clients and servers, HTTP allows users to communicate with web resources.

4. What are the advantages of Devops?

Ans:  While answering this question, if you've had any previous work or hands-on experience, share your points, or we mentioned a few points from the technical and business perspective.

  • DevOps is a fantastic method for quickly developing and deploying apps.
  • It reacts more quickly to market developments, resulting in increased corporate growth.
  • By reducing software delivery expenses and delivery time, DevOps increases business profit.
  • DevOps clarifies the process, allowing business development and delivery to be more transparent.
  • It enhances consumer happiness and experience.
  • DevOps streamlines collaboration by storing all resources in the cloud and making them available to customers.
  • DevOps is a term that refers to shared responsibility, which leads to increased team engagement and productivity.

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5. Tell us the disadvantages of Devops?

Ans: The following are a few disadvantages of DevOps:

  • Developers who are DevOps professionals or experts are in short supply.
  • Developing with DevOps is costly.
  • Adopting new DevOps technologies into industries promptly is difficult.
  • A lack of DevOps expertise might be a challenge in the continuous integration of integrated solutions.

6. What are DevOps' fundamental development and infrastructure operations?

Ans: Application development, unit testing, infrastructure deployment, version control, configuration, orchestration, and monitoring are the fundamental DevOps functions.

7. Explain how Nagios work?


Ans: Nagios is a server-based monitoring system that can be used as a service or as a background process. With the assistance of the servers or processors in your network, Nagios will execute the plugins regularly. The web interface can be used to verify the status of the system. The scripts will be run regularly.

8. Can you explain the DevOps architecture features?

Ans: Here are the four DevOps aspects that all stakeholders should be aware of:


-> Collaboration: DevOps allows autonomous and cross-functional groups to communicate in real-time. DevOps also promotes gathering customer feedback early in sprints to help clarify expectations and guide developers on which things to focus on to reduce modifications.

This approach also encourages end-to-end accountability by making sure that each DevOps architect understands their job and works to enable efficient implementations throughout the DevOps pipeline.

->Automation: Automation can help you save time, especially when it comes to testing and deployment. Automation boosts productivity and speeds up the release process. This will result in the early detection of issues, allowing them to be easily corrected. Each script is determined through cloud-based services, automated tests, and builds for continuous delivery. This encourages the use of automated deployments in production.

->Integration: Other elements in the infrastructure must be interconnected with the DevOps applications. The current code is integrated with new functionality in the integration phase, which is then tested. Continuous development is made possible through continuous integration and testing. The high frequency of releases and microservices creates substantial operational difficulties. Integrated business and delivery are used to solve these issues, allowing for faster, safer, and more dependable delivery.

-> Configuration Management: It ensures that the program only interacts with resources related to the environment in which it functions. The external configuration of the program is not isolated from the source code in the configuration files. The filesystem can be built before deployment or imported at run time, depending on the environment in which it is running.

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9. What is the use of SSh?

Ans: Secure Shell, or SSH, is a command-line application that enables users to connect to and manage remote servers over the Internet. SSH is a secure encrypted prototype of Telnet, which was previously insecure since it was unencrypted. This ensured that all contacts with the web server would be secure. Remote identity verification, input interaction between the user and the server, and output transmission to the client are all included in SSH.

10. What is Devops ToolChain?

Ans: A DevOps toolchain is a collection of tools that automates tasks like designing and implementing your application. DevOps can be done manually with simple stages, but as the complexity of the process grows, so does the demand for automation, and toolchain automation is critical for continuous delivery. A DevOps toolchain is incomplete without GitHub, a version control repository. Future tools may include delivery pipelines, Backlog tracking, and other features.

11. Explain DevOps LifeCycle?

Ans: The DevOps lifecycle automates product development from beginning to end, including the entire organization in the ongoing development, and results in quicker delivery timeframes. The following seven stages make up the majority of this procedure.


-> Continuous Development: Software coding and planning are both parts of continuous development. Here, the program implementation process is broken down into different development life cycles. The DevOps team can easily help accelerate the process of software development with this strategy. This phase is crucial for defining the development cycle's vision and ensuring that developers have a thorough understanding of the project's needs. The team begins to visualize its eventual aim as a result of this. Although the usage of DevOps tools is not required for planning, code is maintained using a variety of version control systems. This form of code maintenance is referred to as source code maintenance. Popular open-source software development technologies include SVN, JIRA, Git, and Mercurial. Furthermore, numerous tools, such as Maven, Ant, and Gradle are available for packaging the programs into executable files. These deployable files are then sent on to the next step in the DevOps process.


-> Continuous Integration: Continuous integration includes many stages related to the integrated test process (CI). Clients also provide information that will be used in the development of innovative application features. The majority of improvements to the source code are made during this period. CI becomes the focus point for attempting to fix these frequent changes on a daily or monthly basis. The process of writing code includes integration and unit testing, code review, and packaging. Because they make frequent changes, developers can quickly identify (and fix) any problems.


New code functionalities are regularly incorporated with the old source code during this phase. As a result of continued development, the improved code seamlessly fits into the entire system. One of the most well-known continuous deployment tools is Jenkins. It facilitates the retrieving of updated code and the production of a build that may be executed.

-> Continuous Testing: In the DevOps lifecycle's testing step, it examines the generated code for errors and bugs that may have slipped in. This is how quality assurance (QA) comes in, to ensure that the software produced is useful. To assess whether the program meets the client's expectations, the QA procedure must be completed effectively. Automation tools such as Selenium, JUnit, and TestNG, which enable the QA team to explore several codebases at the same time, necessitate continuous testing. This assures that the program developed is free of faults in terms of functionality.


-> Continuous Deployment: The continuous deployment (CD) phase involves identifying what resources are deployed smoothly and without disrupting the operation of the application. During this phase, it is critical to verify that the program is implemented accurately on all web servers. This method reduces the need for regular deployments and accelerates the feedback system, allowing designers to respond to issues more quickly and precisely. Through configuration management, containerization solutions aid in continuous integration. Vagrant, a containerization tool, aids integrity across test, staging, production environments, and development. Containerization is the act of integrating virtualization to the operating system level.


-> Continuous monitoring: Monitoring a software product's performance is critical for determining the overall effectiveness of the product's output. This stage processes critical information about the app that has been built. Through regular monitoring, developers can identify repeating concepts and operational considerations in the software that demand further attention. Continuous monitoring is an organizational activity aimed at increasing the overall efficiency of a software application. In addition, it monitors the app's performance. As a result, it's one of the most crucial steps in the DevOps process.


-> Continuous feedback: Continuous feedback is required for determining and exploring the application's conclusion. It sets the tone for making changes to the current version and introducing a new one in effect to stakeholder feedback. Only by evaluating the outcomes of software activities can the entire application development process be improved. Feedback refers to information obtained from the client's end. In this scenario, information is crucial because it provides all of the data about the software's functionality and associated issues. It also contains feedback from the software's clients.


-> Continuous Operations: The final level of the DevOps lifecycle is the simplest to grasp. Continuity is at the center of all DevOps activities, letting developers focus on what they do best, like spot errors promptly, automate release procedures, and develop better iterations of software products. Continuity is critical for avoiding unnecessary deviations and stages that inhibit development. Continuous operations feature shorter development phases, allowing businesses to promote more regularly and cut their time to market in half. DevOps increases the value of software products by making them more efficient and effective, which attracts more customers.

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12. Tell us more detailed information about the DevOps architecture components?

Ans: A DevOps architecture is utilized for cloud-based applications as well as big dispersed systems. Agile development is utilized in the DevOps design to allow for seamless integration and delivery. It takes longer to create, test, and deploy when the operation and development teams are working independently. And if the parameters are out of sync with one another, the delivery may be delayed. As a result, DevOps enables teams to improve their inadequacies while also increasing productivity.


The different components that make up the DevOps architecture are listed below:

Build: Without DevOps, the price of resource consumption was calculated using pre-determined individual utilization and set hardware allotment. And, with DevOps, the cloud is used, resources are shared, and the build is based on the needs of the user, which is a technique for controlling resource or capacity utilization.

Code: Many key principles, like Git, allow code to be utilized, ensuring that it is written for business, tracking modifications, being notified of the cause for the difference between the actual and expected output, and, if required, restoring to the source code generated. The code can be properly organized in files, folders, and so forth. They can also be reused. 

Test: After testing, the application will be completely functional. Manual testing takes longer to complete since it requires more time to test and move the program to the output. Testing can be managed, which cuts down on testing time and hence cuts down on the time it takes to release code to production, as automating the execution of scripts eliminates numerous manual stages.

Plan: Agile technique is used by DevOps to plan development. When the development and operation teams work together, it is easier to organize the work and plan properly, resulting in increased productivity.

Monitor: Any risk of failure is identified by continuous monitoring. It also aids in correctly tracking the system so that the application's health may be assessed. Monitoring gets easier with services that allow log data to be watched through a variety of third-party tools, such as Splunk.

Deploy: The scheduler can be used by a variety of systems to automate deployment. By deploying dashboards, the cloud infrastructure system allows users to acquire the precise information and examine the optimization scenario, as well as statistics on trends.

Operate: The old method of testing and developing independently is changed by DevOps. The teams work together collaboratively, with both teams contributing actively all through the product life cycle. The operation team collaborates with developers to build a monitoring strategy that meets both IT and business needs. 

Release: Automation can be used to deploy to a specific environment. When it comes to deploying to the manufacturing environment, however, manual triggering is used. Many release management processes are used to execute the implementation in the manufacturing environment manually to minimize the impact on customers.

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13. Explain the CI/CD Pipeline?

Ans: CI and CD techniques require the same activities to be completed regularly, automation is perfect. Pipelines are commonly used to describe the standardization of CI and CD operations, as they are analogous to traditional manufacturing development automation pipelines. Because mechanization (the "A" in the DevOps CALMS paradigm) is a major component of DevOps, CI/CD pipelines are frequently considered essential to DevOps techniques. A single team can build and maintain the pipeline to manufacturing, or the CI/CD pipeline can provide a stable and verified set of development artifacts to a different technical team for distribution (purer DevOps model).

Other modifications that can improve dependability can also be introduced using a CI/CD pipeline. For instance, it is relatively simple to incorporate integration, or unit, and system testing earlier in the development cycle. This is known as "shifting left," and it can lead to significant cost savings when faults are discovered earlier in the delivery.

14. Tell me about the CI/CD pipeline security?


Ans: When it comes to software security, the increasing influence of CI/CD pipelines has created new opportunities as well as challenges. On the plus side, CI/CD pipelines restrict unrestricted access to the development and deployment processes. Furthermore, rather than granting complete administrator access, it is extremely easy to provide those users (both "actual" users and programs) smooth access to just the components they require. Pipelines also improve the accuracy and consistency of build and delivery because it is relatively easy to log what progress is being made, the result, and what (or who) stimulated it at each step.

As previously stated, one disadvantage of CI/CD is the increase of dangers. A variety of variables have led to an increase in the amount of code, as well as the plethora of sources and technology platforms, since 2000. Software is currently being released faster than ever before as deployment has intensified and pipelines have gotten more reliable.

Developers now have considerably more software options because of the growth of open systems libraries, platforms, and tooling. Finally, the rise of virtualization as a substitutable bundling and deployment technique, as well as software component interoperability via REST APIs and gRPC, has made it easier and faster than ever to build and deploy these components together.

15. How to build a DevOps Pipeline?

Ans: The following essential components will be included in an effective DevOps pipeline:

CI/CD framework
Source control management. 
Build automation tools
Code testing framework
It could also incorporate container and IaC security pipeline technologies. Numerous open-source DevOps technologies are available to aid in the development of an effective DevOps pipeline.

-> CI/CD Framework: Travis CI or Jenkins are CD/CI frameworks that aid in the implementation of the CI/CD element of the DevOps pipeline. In most cases, such frameworks contain a server that can do automatic software builds, testing, and deployment depending on incoming script contributions. As a result, your CI/CD tool should be linked to the Github repository.

-> Source Control Management: Management solutions for version control systems (or application deployment) make it possible to trace and manage code changes. They keep track of code changes over time, including respective developer contributions and draw requests. They also assist in the commitment of code modifications to online repositories and the resolution of conflicts between various contributions. Git has the most evolved ecosystem and is the widely used source-control management solution.

-> Build Automation Tools: The Build automation software aids in the packaging of application source code into deployable objects. The usefulness of these tools varies depending on whether an executable or interpretable programming language is used.

-> Code Testing Framework: A code testing framework assists developers in detecting any application issues during the development process. Unit test functionality is often included in these tools, which may be interconnected into existing applications and deployed at runtime. Code testing platforms can also be integrated with current CI/CD systems to streamline the process. For each programming language, there are a variety of assessment frameworks available (e.g., JUnit for Java and Pytest for Python).

By adding an automatic Snyk Code test to your CI/CD, you can also associate the quality of the software and vulnerability assessments with the build process.


Conclusion:

Here is the end of the article. Our team tried to cover all the basic and intermediate concepts, which helps you brush up on your basics. Meanwhile, we’ll update the Advanced DevOps Interview Questions. If you've got any queries, please comment below. Stay tuned for more updates on DevOps Interview Questions.

Related Articles:

1. Agile vs DevOps

2. DevOps Architecture

3. DevOps Tools

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Saritha Reddy
Saritha Reddy
Research Analyst
A technical lead content writer in HKR Trainings with an expertise in delivering content on the market demanding technologies like Networking, Storage & Virtualization,Cyber Security & SIEM Tools, Server Administration, Operating System & Administration, IAM Tools, Cloud Computing, etc. She does a great job in creating wonderful content for the users and always keeps updated with the latest trends in the market. To know more information connect her on Linkedin, Twitter, and Facebook.