Kickstart your career as a Cybersecurity professional. With the rapid growth in data breach incidents and sophisticated attacks, companies make significant investments in security technologies and solutions. Deploying a Security Operations Centre is a cost-effective strategy to address these cyber threats. The SOC team looks after security incidents across the organization.
So to help you to clear your interview as SOC analyst, we have provided you with the frequently asked SIEM interview questions and answers in this blog. We have divided these questions into basic, intermediate and experienced levels. So Let's get started with basic questions related to SIEM.
Ans: SIEM refers to Security information and event management. It is a software solution that brings together and analyses the activity of numerous resources throughout your IT infrastructure. SIEM gathers security data for network devices, domain controllers, servers, and more. It applies, aggregates, normalizes and stores analytics to that data to detect threats, discover trends and allows the organizations to investigate alerts.
Ans: A firewall is a device that permits/blocks traffic in accordance with established rules. They are placed on the edge of reliable and unreliable networks.
Ans: CSRF stands for Cross-Site Request Forgery. It is a Web application vulnerability where the server fails to verify whether the request originated from a trusted client. This request is directly processed. It may be followed by detecting methods, examples and countermeasures.
Ans: Security Misconfiguration is a Vulnerability when a network or device or application is configured in a manner so that it can be used by an attacker to make the most of it. It may be as easy as keeping the default username or password unchanged or very easy for device accounts and so on.
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Ans: Port scanning is a message sending process that collects information about the system, network, etc., by examining the received response.
Ans: Follow a series of standards established by a government or independent organization, or party. An industry that processes, transmits or stores payment information must be in compliance with PCI DSS. Other examples of compliance can be an organization that follows its own policies.
Ans: Symmetric encryption utilizes the same key to encrypt and decrypt, whereas asymmetric encryption utilizes different keys to encrypt and decrypt. Symmetric is generally more quicker, but the key has to be transferred to an unencrypted channel. However, Asymmetric is much more secure but slow. Therefore, the hybrid approach would be considered as the configuration of a channel by asymmetric encryption and sending data by a symmetrical process.
Ans: The IDS is a system for detecting intrusions, while the IPS is a system for preventing intrusions. IDS will simply detect the intrusion and let the administrator do the rest for later actions while an IPS detects the intrusion and takes additional steps to prevent the intrusion. A further difference lies in the positioning of the network devices. Though they operate on the same core concept, the placement is different.
Ans: XSS stands for Cross-site scripting which is a vulnerability for web applications. The simplest way of explaining it is an example where a user in the input fields types a script on the client-side, and the input is then processed without evaluation. This results in unreliable data being stored and executed at the customer end. XSS countermeasures include input validation, implementation of a CSP, etc.
Ans: When an alert is generated by the device for an intrusion which has not really occurred, this is known as a false positive. When an alert is not generated by the device for an intrusion that has actually occurred, this is called a false negative.
Ans: The data leak occurs when data leaves the organization without authorization. Data leaks can occur through printing, email, lost laptops, removable drives, unauthorized downloading of data on public portals, photographs, etc. Different controls may be put in place to ensure that information is not leaked. Some controls can be following an internal encryption solution, restricting uploads on the websites, restricting email to the internal network, restricting the printing of confidential data, and so on.
Ans: SIEM stands for Security Incident, and Event Management System and IDS stands for Intrusion Detection System. Both of them are utilized by the organization to provide effective network and system protection. Both of them collect log data, but contrary to SIEM, IDS does not make it easier to correlate events and centralize log data. As a result, the IDS is only able to detect intrusions, while SIEM enables security analysts to take safety and prevention measures against potential or ongoing attacks.
Ans: NIDS is a network intrusion detection system, While HIDS is a host intrusion detection system. Both of them work similarly. Only the placement is different. HIDS is placed on every host while NIDS is placed within the network. For a company, NIDS is preferred because HIDS is hard to handle, and it also consumes the processing power of the host.
Ans: VA stands for Vulnerability Assessment, and PT stands for Penetration testing. Vulnerability Assessment is an approach used to identify vulnerabilities within an application or network, while penetration testing is the practice of identifying exploitable vulnerabilities as an actual attacker would do.
Ans: A VAPT report should contain a summary explaining the observations at a general level, as well as the scope, testing period, etc. This can be followed by the number of observations, category wise divided into top, middle and bottom. Include detailed observation as well as replication steps, proof of concept screenshots, and remediation.
Ans: When we cannot ping the final destination, Tracert will assist in finding out where the connection breaks or stops, whether it is an ISP, firewall, router, etc.
Ans: DDoS refers to distributed denial of service. When a server or application, or network is flooded with a lot of queries that it is not designed to deal with, making the server inaccessible to legitimate queries, the Requests may originate from a variety of unrelated sources, making this a distributed denial-of-service attack. It may be mitigated by filtering and analyzing the traffic in scrubbing centres. Scrubbing Centers are centralized data clean-up stations in which website traffic is analyzed, and malicious traffic is deleted.
Ans: A basic web architecture must contain a front-end server, a database server and a web application server.
Ans: Review the Antivirus policy and the alert. If the alert involves a legitimate file, it may be cleared, and if it is a malicious file, then it may be quarantined or deleted. The file hash may be verified for reputation on different websites such as malwares.com, virustotal, etc. The antivirus must be finely tuned to reduce alerts.
Ans: The data must be divided into various categories to be able to define its severity. Without segregation, a piece of information may be essential for one but not for the others. There may be different levels of data classification by the organization; in more general terms, data may be classified as:
Ans: Social media can be acceptable; we need to make sure that content filtering is enabled and upload functions are restricted. The read-only mode can be accepted until there is no interference with the work.
Ans: This can be accomplished in several ways:
Ans: There is no set timeline for the security policy review, but it should be done at least on an annual basis. Any changes made must be documented in document revision history and version control. If major changes are made, users should also be notified of the changes.
Ans: Web server hardening is about filtering out useless services that run on different ports and removing default-test scripts from servers. While hardening the Web server is much more than that, and usually, organizations have a custom checklist for servers hardening. All created servers must be hardened, and hardening must be confirmed annually. Even the hardening checklist should be reviewed on an annual basis for new add-ons.
Ans: The risk may be stated, but it has to be evaluated first. There are two ways to assess risk: quantitative and qualitative. This approach is intended for technicians as well as business people. The business guy may see a likely loss in the figures, while the tech guys will see the impact and frequency. According to the target audience, the risk may be evaluated and reported.
Ans: Anything that compromises the safety of an organization is an incident. The incident process is as follows:
Ans: There are various SOC models:
In this blog, we have covered SIEM frequently asked interview questions. We hope you find this blog useful. Reading these questions may help you to answer the questions related to SIEM. If you cannot find an answer to any question related to SIEM, do not forget to comment below.
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