Quality assurance is an essential element for developing software. The objective of QA engineers is to contribute to the creation of quality products. This is not a question of finding bugs, not just testing. The primary function of a QA engineer is to avoid defects and thus to assure the quality of the development process and its outcomes. So If you are a professional seeking a QA job, our QA interview questions blog will be very helpful for you.
In this blog, we have divided the frequently asked QA interview questions into three categories: Basic level, Intermediate level and Experienced level. Let's begin with the basic level interview questions.
A bug is any type of mistake, failure or error in the software code that prevents the function of the software from running correctly.
QA should be initiated as early as possible. The sooner the QA analysts, the leads and the testers are involved in the process; the more errors are avoided later in the development cycle. Static tests may be done prior to the software being completely functional. Cost, efforts and time are extremely difficult when quality assurance activities are delayed.
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A test plan is a document that provides a comprehensive overview of the planned Test. It specifies the potential risks, roles required, resources and solutions that will be used prior to the commencement of testing.
Test plans must contain the resources required, approach, Scope and the intended schedule of the tests.
A good test case indicates the parameters clearly within which the Test will be carried out and the bugs it expects to find. To keep it simple, a good test case is the one that identifies a defect. But all test cases will not detect any defects. So a good test case may also be the one with all the required details and coverage. A test case format includes the test case id, description, priority, severity, build version, environment, expected results, steps to execute and the actual results.
A use case will describe the causes and effects of a function. It ensures that the action of the user and the response of the system communicate with each other correctly.
The test strategy describes the plan for the software development test stage. In contrast to the testing plan, which describes a particular test, the testing strategy covers the whole testing phase of the development and contains the description of the test tools, test priorities, test groups, test summary and test record maintenance.
No, Test plans gather and arrange test cases. Test strategies outline the testing approach. Generally, QA Lead or QA Manager manage the test strategies, whereas QA testers manage the test plans. Test strategy illustrates the overall testing approach for the complete project, while the test plan describes how the tests should be carried out for a specific application as part of a project.
Testware is test artefacts such as test data, test cases, test plans necessary for designing and executing a test.
The following are the important differences that must be recognized for good time management. Severity is the difficulty in resolving the problem. The priority is to determine the importance of dealing with the problem. The very fact that a problem is very serious does not necessarily mean that it is a high priority and vice versa.
The following is an example of low priority and high severity issues:
The following is an example of high priority and low severity issue:
The two commands have many similarities. Both of them verify whether the code conditions are true. What's different is what happens after that.
If an assert command fails, then it stops executing the code and pauses the Test.
If a Verify command fails, it moves forward and executes the remaining code.
Quality Assurance: It is the planning process and determining how to monitor and implement quality processes across a team and the organization. This method determines and sets project quality standards.
Quality Control: It involves identifying defects and giving suggestions to enhance the software quality. The methods used for quality control are generally established through quality assurance. The main responsibility for implementing quality control rests with the testing team.
Testing: It is the process of checking for defects/bugs. It validates if the software developed by the development team satisfies the requirements established by the user and the standards established by the organization.
Here, the primary objective is to find bugs and the test teams work as quality guardians.
There are a number of tests available. They include Regression testing, functional testing, exploratory testing, integration testing, white box testing, black-box testing, alpha testing, unit testing and beta testing.
Functional Testing: It focuses on the functionality of the application. This technique tests the behaviour of the system in accordance with requirements and specifications. They are directly related to the customer's requirements. We validate the test cases based on the given requirement and make sure that the test results are passed or not.
E.g., integration, regression, system, etc.
Non-Functional Testing: Non-functional tests, however, test the non-functional appearance of the application. It will not focus on requirements; rather, it focuses on environmental factors such as performance, load and stress. These are not specifically stated in the requirement and are provided in the quality standards. Therefore, as a QA, we must ensure that these tests also receive adequate time and priority.
[Related Article:What is QA]
Yes, there will be some situations where we have to write test cases without actual documentation. In such situations, the best way to do so is to:
Validation: It is the final product evaluation process to verify that the software satisfies the needs of the business. Performing the tests we perform on a daily basis is the validation activity like smoke testing, regression testing, functional testing, system testing, etc.
Verification: It is a process for evaluating intermediate work products in a software development cycle to verify that we are on track to create the final product.
An audit refers to the on-site verification activity like examination, inspection for the processor quality system. It is the systematic analysis process for a quality system performed by an audit team or an external or internal quality auditor. Quality audits are conducted at predefined intervals to make sure that the institution has clearly defined internal control procedures related to effective action. The Audits are a critical management tool for checking objective proofs of processes.
It is a document which maps and traces the needs of users with test cases. The primary purpose of the requirements traceability matrix is to ensure that every test case is covered so that there will be no functionality missing during software testing.
Three verification techniques are available. They are as follows:
Load testing: It refers to testing an application under an expected heavy load is called Load testing. In this case, the load refers to the huge volume of data, users, requests, messages, etc.
Volume testing: It refers to the process of checking the system if it can handle the desired amount of user data, requests, etc.
Stress Testing: If the system load is elevated beyond the normal range, it is called Stress testing.
Test Metric is called the Standard of test measurement. It consists of statistics describing the structure/content of a test. It includes information such as Test run, Total Test, Test passed, Test passed the first time, Test failed, and Tests deferred.
The stub is invoked from the Software element to be tested. This is utilized in the top-down approach.
The driver calls the components for testing. This is utilized in the bottom-up approach.
It is an informal means for testing the software. It will not go through the formal process such as requirement documents, test cases, test plans, etc.
Following are the Characteristics of Adhoc testing:
In Test-Driven Development, prior to writing the real code, test cases are drafted. This means that you should write the test case prior to the application's actual development.
Test-Driven Development cycle:
QA represents Quality Assurance. The QA team ensures quality by supervising the entire development process. QA monitors outcomes and adjusts processes to meet expectations.
Quality Assurance's roles include:
Regression Testing: It is used to check whether or not new code changes affected the unchanged functionality. The main purpose of regression testing is to ensure that changes to the code do not affect existing functionality. Depending on the resources available, the regression test is performed along with the retesting.
Retesting: It is the Test for modules that failed during the last execution. Retesting is the Test which is carried out on the defects which have been corrected. The retesting has more priority than the regression test. Therefore it is always carried out before performing the regression test.
The bug life cycle is also called the defect life cycle. It is a specified set of states through which a bug passes. The number of states in which a defect passes varies according to the project.
New: When the new defect is initially recorded and displayed, the status is assigned to New.
Assigned: When the tester posts the bug, it is approved by the tester and assigned to the developing team.
Open: The developer begins the analysis and works on troubleshooting the defect.
Fixed: After making the required changes, the developer verifies the change and makes the status of the bug fixed.
Retest: At this stage, the tester performs the retesting and verifies the defect is fixed or not and changes the status as retest.
Reopen: If the bug exists even after the bug is fixed, then the tester changes the status to reopen. Then the bug goes through the bug life cycle once again.
Verified: The bug is checked again by the tester after it has been fixed. if no bugs are found, then the status is changed to Verified.
Closed: If no bugs exist, it will go to Closed status.
Duplicate: if the defect matches with the previous bug or it is repeated twice, then it will become Duplicate.
Rejected: If the defect is considered as not a genuine defect, the status changes to Rejected.
Deferred: If the defect is not having priority and can be fixed in the upcoming release, then the status can be deferred.
Preventive Approach: It is also called the Verification process. It is the process of preventing defects. Here, the tests are designed at the beginning of the software development cycle before software development takes place. The testers try to prevent the defects in the first steps; this is part of the quality analysis.
Reactive Approach: It is also called the Validation process. The reactive approach involves identifying defects. Here the tests are designed to be carried out after the software has been developed. We attempt to discover the faults. It falls under quality control.
The above are just a few of the frequently asked interview questions by the topmost companies. We hope you found the Frequently Asked Questions helpful. We would try to put in additional questions. We are trying to add more FAQs to assist you in preparing for your interview. Stay tuned to HKR Trainings blogs for more interview questions.
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