Selenium Tutorial

Test automation enhances the overall efficiency of the software and ensures better quality software with less effort. Many tools and techniques are available today to test the software and its performance. Automation testing is the application of various tools to test software that reduces testing efforts, is easy to afford, and delivers faster capability. Selenium is a popular test automation tool useful for web application testing. In this tutorial, you will learn about various key concepts of Selenium, including Selenium introduction, components, advantages, limitations, webdriver, and many more.

What is Selenium?

Selenium is a popular, open-source, web-based test automation tool. This test automation framework supports different browsers and platforms, including programming languages. It is also easy to deploy Selenium on various platforms like Windows, Solaris, Linux, etc. 

Moreover, you can build test scripts in Selenium using programming languages like Java, Python, C#, etc. Selenium is not only a single tool but a software suite for testing web apps. You can also automate the test functionality using Selenium. Further, you can integrate it with other automating testing tools like Jenkins, maven, Docker, etc. Moreover, Selenium has a large user base with great community support. Also, its usage results in higher ROI with faster go-to-market facilities. 

Learn the basics of Selenium and take your automation testing skills to the next level!


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Components of selenium

Selenium has four different types of components, such as:-

  1. Selenium IDE
  2. Selenium RC
  3. Selenium WebDriver
  4. Selenium Grid
1. Selenium IDE

In the Selenium suite, Selenium IDE or Integrated Development Environment is the simplest tool for web automation testing. It is very easy to install and learn. You don't need to use any coding language while preparing test cases or scripts on Selenium IDE. But you can only use it as a prototyping tool due to its simplicity. It cannot be a complete solution for developing and managing complex test scripts.

Also, Selenium IDE supports autocomplete mode while developing tests, which helps testers to move commands much faster. Further, it limits the users from giving invalid commands.  

Moreover, Selenium IDE is a firefox plugin that lets testers create faster test cases. The major benefit of using Selenium IDE is that you can export the tests recorded through the plugin to different coding languages. Such as Java, Python, etc.

2. Selenium RC

Selenium Remote Control (RC) is a Java tool that allows testers to develop test scripts for automated web apps. He can write these test scripts in any programming language that it supports. Moreover, it is considered the best tool to test AJAX-based web UI within the CI system. 

Selenium RC is useful to overcome the various loopholes of Selenium IDE or Core components. It also supports different browsers and platforms, including error handling and DB testing. Moreover, Selenium Remote Control (RC) has two different components: Selenium RC Server and Selenium RC Client.

3. Selenium WebDriver

It is an open-source web automation testing tool with a group of APIs that are useful for web app testing. Selenium WebDriver is useful to check whether the web app is working as expected or not. Also, it allows cross-browser TestingTesting and supports different browsers like Chrome, Safari, Firefox, etc. 

Moreover, you can use any programming language, like Java, PHP, .Net, etc., to develop test scripts in Selenium WebDriver. Further, it utilizes the browser's native compatibility for automation testing. Also, it gained much popularity and user-base with the growing demand. It can easily liaise with the browser and is much faster than Selenium RC. Also, it doesn't need the use of Selenium Server to execute test scripts. 

4. Selenium Grid

It is also one of the important components of the Selenium Software suite and a web testing tool. That allows its users to run tests on different browsers in different systems. Thus, you can run multiple tests across different OS, browsers, and systems in parallel. It allows TestingTesting under different environments so that you can save a lot of test execution time with distributed test execution.

Also, you can easily connect with Selenium RC using any browser or OS. Moreover, to run Selenium automation scripts easily, many online platforms offer an online Selenium Grid. They give access to run these scripts much faster. Further, Selenium Grid supports Hub-Node Architecture so you can test scripts in parallel mode. Here, the Hub is the major network, and the others are nodes where the Hub controls the test script's execution. 

Selenium Installation

Let us know the Selenium environment setup in detail.

  1. Install Java
  2. Install Eclipse IDE
  3. Install and Configure Selenium WebDriver
Step 1. Install Java

Before you move further to use Selenium, you must first install JDK (Java Software Development Kit). However, Java installation needs configuration of the Java environment for smooth driving of Selenium using Java codes. Let us know the steps to install JDK.:-

  • Open the website "Oracle" and go to "Java Downloads Page", and then click on the option "Java Platform" or JDK. 
  • You can see "Java SE Downloads" there.
  • Then on the next page, you can see the "Accept License Agreement" button. Please select it and hit the download link of the suitable JDK that corresponds to your machine's Operating System. 

Once the download is complete, you can run the installer by following the below steps.:-

  • Navigate to the Start button and then find "System".
  • Click on the "System" button.
  • Then go to the "Advanced System Settings" option.
  • In the" Advanced" tab, you must hit the option "Environmental variables."
  • Then, in the System variables tab, you need to choose "New" and enter the name of the variable "Java HOME". You will see the complete path to installing JDK will be there.
  • Next, on the New System Variable page, you can see the configuration of environment variables Name and Value. 
  • Later, you have to configure those Environment Variables. For this, you need to Edit the System Variable Path. 
  • Inside the "Variable value" option, you need to enter the path, %Java_HOME%bin; and then click on the "Ok" button. It's complete now. 
  • Then, to cross-check the version you installed, run the following command in cmd- Java -version. You will see the installed Java version in your system. 
Step 2. Install Eclipse IDE 

Now let us see the installation process of Eclipse IDE. 

  • For this, you need to download the latest version of "Eclipse IDE for Java Developers" from the downloads section of the Eclipse website. Depending on the system architecture, you can download the suitable version.
  • After downloading the file, you need to open the Zip file to extract it and save it to the directory. Here, you can see the Root folder, where Eclipse resides.
  • Now, open the folder and start the "Eclipse.exe", and it will run. 

Thus, the process ends here for installing Eclipse IDE. Now, the last part is to install Selenium WebDriver.

Step 3. Install and Configure Selenium WebDriver 

You must open the browser and navigate the site to download Selenium WebDriver. 

  • Choose the "download version" that suits you best from the "Download" menu. You will find many drivers for different coding languages here, but you should only install them for Java. 
  • All the drivers will download into a zip file that contains JAR files. You can find two types of JAR files- the lib folder and the changelog file.
  • After saving the JAR file, you need to download the "Selenium Java Client" from the same downloads page.
  • Then extract the Zip file and save the same to your Selenium folder. 
  • Next, you must download the Chrome Driver using the Google Chrome browser. You will find it in the Third-party drivers section on the downloads page. You can also see Gecko Driver if you use the Mozilla Firefox browser to download it. 
  • By clicking the download option, you will navigate to the next page to see the latest browser versions available. Here, you can select the one that best suits your system settings.
  • Hence, you can easily download the Driver and save the file in a safe location after extracting it from the Zip file. In Gecko Driver's case, you must also follow the same steps. 
  • Now, you can easily build a new project in the Eclipse IDE. Then you can add all the external JAR files from the available lib directory.
  • Here, you need to start the Eclipse and build a New project. 
  • Give "project- name" and create a "Class".
  • Create a class file there and enable the Public access modifier. 
  • Further, you can add referenced libraries to the new project by clicking "Build path">Goto "Configure Build Path" and then add all the "external JAR files".
  • Thus, you're all set to start your first ever Selenium program. 

So, in this way, you can install Selenium to start using it further. 

Frequently asked Selenium Interview Questions and Answers !!

Launch browsers in selenium:

Here, we are going to learn the selenium Webdriver commands that are used to launch different web browsers such as Safari, IE, Chrome, firefox, etc.

As you all are aware of, the Selenium WebDriver calls native methods of different browsers in order to invoke the automating scripting. So we have the different web drivers for different browsers like FirefoxDriver for Firefox browser, InternetExplorerDriver for IE, etc.

For more information regarding the code snippet to launch different browsers in selenium please go through the following link Launching Broswers Selenium.

Locators in Selenium WebDriver

Here we are going to learn about the need of locators and different locators used in selenium WebDriver in the process of automation.

A simple automation process in selenium can be described as follows:

  • Launching browser
  • Opening the desired website to be automated
  • Locating web elements like a textbox
  • Performing operations on the located web elements like writing in the textbox
  • Performing assertion like checking ‘Success’ message

The above mentioned 5 points are implemented in the below code as follows:

//Launching Firefox browser

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();



//Initializing webelement searchBox
WebElement searchBox = driver.findElement("q"));//Writing a text "ArtOfTesting" in the search box


In the code, an operation is performed on the web element, we need to locate it with“q”).

There are 8 locators in selenium. They are:

  1. By Id – Locates element using id attribute of the web element.
WebElement element = driver.findElement("elementId"));
  1. By className – Locates the web element using className attribute.
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.className("objectClass"));
  1. By tagName – Locates the web element using its HTML tag like div, a, input etc.
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.tagName("a"));
  1. By name – Locates the web element using name attribute.
WebElement element = driver.findElement("male"));
  1. By linkText – Locates the web element of link type using their text.
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.linkText("Click Here"));
  1. By partialLinkText – Locates the web element of link type with partial matching of text.
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.partialLinkText("Click"));

       7. By cssSelector – Locates the web element using css its CSS Selector patterns. In Selenium, we can use these CSS Selector rules/patterns for locating web elements and later perform different operations on them.

Syntax: WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("div#id"));

For example-

//Locating searchBox element using CSS Selector

WebElement searchBox = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("div#searchBox"));

//Performing click operation on the element

searchBox.sendKeys("HKR Trainings");
  1. By xpath – Locates the web element using its XPaths. An XPath can be defined as a query language used for navigating through the XML documents in order to locate different elements. The basic syntax of an XPath expression is-
WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//div[@id='id']"));

These locators are very powerful and help in creating robust locators for complex web elements. There are some scenarios where we cannot use id attributes or locators like classNamename, in such cases,you need to take advantage of the CSS selector and XPath locators.

Related Article: Selenium vs Tosca

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Selenium Webdriver Commands:

Here we are going to learn the basic selenium webdriver commands that helps in performing operations like opening an URL, clicking on buttons, writing in a textbox and closing the browser, etc.

Now let’s see the commands in detail:

Opening a URL: 

One can open an URL by using the Get and Navigate methods.

The driver.get()method is used to navigate a webpage by using the string URL as follows:driver.get("");

The driver.navigate().to() method does the task of opening a web page like driver.get() method. driver.navigate().to("");

Clicking on the WebElements:

Click()method is used to perform the click operations on the web elements.The click() method is applied on the webElements identified, to perform the click operation.

//Clicking an element directly


//Or by first creating a WebElement and then applying click() operation

WebElement submitButton = driver.findElement("button2"));;
Writing and clearing text in a textbox

The sendKeys() method can be used for writing in a textbox or any element of text input type.

//Creating a textbox webElement

WebElement element = driver.findElement("q"));

//Using sendKeys to write in the textbox


The clear() method can be used to clear the text written in a textbox or any web element of text input type.

//Clearing the text written in text fields

Fetching text written over an web element:

In order to fetch the text written over a web element for performing some assertions or debugging. For this, we have the getText() method in selenium webDriver.

//Fetching the text written over web elements

Backward and forward navigating in a browser:

Selenium provides navigate().back() command to move backward in the browser’s history.

//Navigating backwards in browser


Selenium provides navigate().forward() command to move forward in a browser.

//Navigating forward in browser


We can also perform a refresh of the web page in the seleniumWebdriver by using the following syntax as follows.

  1. Using driver.navigate().refresh() command
  2. Using sendKeys(Keys.F5) on any textbox on the webpage
  3. Using driver.get(“URL”) with current URL
  4. Using driver.navigate().to(“URL”) with current URL

If you have any doubts on Selenium, then get them clarified from Selenium Industry experts on our Selenium Community

Advantages of Selenium:

  1. Open-Source:- The biggest benefit of Selenium is its open-source availability and portability.No many upfront costs are required as you can download it free. Also, you will get great community support freely.
  2. Language support:- Selenium is compatible with any coding language you use, such as Java, Python, Ruby, JS, etc. Developers can use it with any language that they are comfortable working with.
  3. Supports Operating Systems:- It supports multiple OS such as Windows, Linux, UNIX, Mac, etc. Moreover, it allows you to develop a custom testing solution using the suite of solutions from Selenium on any platform. Also, you can execute them on any other platform. 
  4. Support across browsers:- Selenium is compatible to work with any browser like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc. It will be highly helpful while you perform cross-browser TestingTesting in parallel.
  5. Support for programming languages and frameworks:- Selenium easily integrates with any coding language and framework for different purposes, such as source code compilation, app testing and reporting, etc. Also, it supports many open-source, free-to-use tools for many other features. 
  6. Tests across devices:- You can apply Selenium automation testing across multiple devices like Android, iPhone, etc. So, you can produce relevant results and act on several issues regularly.
  7. Constant updates:- Due to large community support, the updates in the software are constant. You don't need any special skill for this, which makes it very cost-effective. 
  8. Loaded Selenium suites:- Selenium is not just a single tool but a software suite of various tools and services. Each tool in this suite is built to serve different testing needs and the test environment needs.
  9. Ease of implementation:- It is easy to use and apply Selenium as it offers user-friendly features. So, you can build and execute tests much more effectively. Also, you can script your extension to customize and develop various actions. 
  10. Reusability and Add-ons:- Using Selenium test automation scripts, you can run concurrent tests across different browsers and platforms. You can also get many add-on tools here regarding functional TestingTesting. 

Limitations of Selenium: 

  1. You cannot test the windows app:- Selenium cannot enhance its support for Windows apps as it can only test the web apps.
  2. Mobile TestingTesting is not permitted:- You can conduct tests on any desktop browser and OS using Selenium. But you cannot test on mobile platforms. For this, you may need the support of another tool Appium to manage mobile app testing.
  3. Limited reporting:- Selenium doesn't offer to produce a good report. For this, you can use the TestNG framework to get lengthy reports.
  4. Handling pop-up windows:- Managing windows-based pop-ups is beyond Selenium's capacity. These pop-ups are part of the OS. 
  5. Handling captcha:- Captcha handling is also a drawback in Selenium, but you can use many 3rd-party tools for this. They help to automate the captcha but with some limitations. 
  6. Handling dynamic Elements:- Some web elements may be dynamic, which is difficult to handle. You can use Dynamic XPath or CSS Selectors to manage these dynamic elements. 
  7. Maintenance and Scalability:- It is a bit difficult to maintain Selenium, and it will be tough to scale it with your growth. 
  8. Image Testing is impossible:- With Selenium, you cannot possibly test images. For this, you can use Sikuli for testing images easily.

Selenium WebDriver Architecture:

Selenium WebDriver is one of the most crucial components of the Selenium Software suite. It supports web browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, etc. However, the Selenium Architecture includes the following basic components. 

  • Selenium Client Libraries
  • Browser Drivers
  • JSON Wire Protocol
  • Real Browsers 

Selenium WebDriver Architecture

Selenium Client Libraries

Developers have built Selenium client libraries or language bindings to support different coding languages. Further, Selenium supports multiple programming languages like Java, Ruby, Python, etc.

Browser Drivers

To communicate between the web browser and the Selenium WebDriver, Browser Drivers are highly useful. Also, it makes sure that no information is shared with the browser regarding the browser functionalities' internal logic. Moreover, a browser driver is particular to the coding language used in test automation. 

JSON Wire Protocol

JSON or JavaScript Object Notation is an open rule for swapping data on the web. Also, it supports data structures like an object, array, etc., which makes it easier to read and write data from JSON files. These components play a crucial role in the Selenium test automation process. Moreover, this protocol acts as a transport tool to move data between a client and a server. 

Real Browsers

You can see that Selenium supports multiple browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, IE, Opera, and others. 

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Waits in Selenium:

In Selenium, you must have heard about "waits" that play an important role in test execution. It runs based on some commands known as scripts that allow page loading through it. Selenium waits have many uses. We can see many web apps are built using AJAX and JavaScript frameworks. 

So, when we load a page using the browser, some browser elements may load at various intervals. Therefore, we cannot interact with them easily. Selenium waits make the pages less energetic and reliable. Thus, it offers various options to the user that are adequate and best suitable. 

Implicit Wait

The Selenium implicit wait is useful to inform the web driver to wait some time before throwing an exception "No Such Element Exception". However, the default setting is set to "0". Once we set the time for this, the browser will wait for some time set by you before it throws the above exception or error. 

The syntax we can use for the implicit wait is- 


Explicit Wait

The Explicit wait in Selenium is a dynamic wait based on specific conditions. This exception will inform the Web Driver to wait for certain expected conditions before throwing the exception or error "ElementNotVisibleException". Moreover, it is an intelligent wait in Selenium but only applicable to certain elements. 

The syntax we can use for the Explicit wait is -

 WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(WebDriverRefrence,TimeOut)

Fluent Wait

The Selenium Fluent Wait is similar to explicit wait, using which you can execute the wait for an element's action. It is useful only when you're unaware of the time for clicking or visibility of the element. However, the syntax we can use in the Fluent Wait is-

Wait, wait = new FluentWait(WebDriver reference)

.withTimeout(timeout, SECONDS)

.pollingEvery(timeout, SECONDS)


Handling Dropdowns in Selenium WebDriver :

Here, you will learn about handling various dropdowns in Selenium Web Driver.

But before you dive deep into the process of handling dropdowns, you need to know about the 'Select' class.

A 'Select' class in Selenium WebDriver is useful to select and deselect an option within the dropdown. However, Selenium WebDriver offers three different methods to select an option from the dropdown such as:-

  • selectindex
  • selectby value
  • selectbyVisibleText

Stepwise, you will see a test case describing the process of handling dropdowns in Selenium WebDriver.

Step-1. Start the Eclipse IDE and open the test suite "Demo_Test" that you have created. Here you can use a demo test case, for example.

Step-2. You need to click on the" src" folder and build a new file going to New > Class. Then give the class name as "Dropdwn_test" and hit the "Finish" button.

Step-3. Let us now check the coding section.

For this, you need a Chrome Browser. After downloading the file "chromedriver.exe.file", you must set up the property "Run test on Chrome Browser" to the path of the downloaded file. 

Then it would help if you started the Chrome Driver by initiating the ChromeDriver Class using the syntax-

r driver=new ChromeDriver()

Now you are ready to start the Chrome Browser easily. Then again, you need to create a code for automating the second test scenario.

Step-4. Then you need to find the dropdown menu by testing the HTML codes. 

Step-5. Now you need to automate the third test scenario for which you need to create a code. This code will help to select "Database Testing" from the dropdown menu. You can see the final code sample, which will look something like this:-

import org.openqa.selenium.By;  

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;  



public class Dropdwn_Test {  

    public static void main(String[] args) {   


        WebDriver driver=new ChromeDriver()


Select dropdown = new Select(driver.findElement("testingDropdown")));  

dropdown.selectByVisibleText("Database Testing");  




Step-6. Then do a "Right click "on the Eclipse code and choose the option Run As > Java Application.

Thus, executing all the above scripts allows you to start the chrome browser and automate all the test scenarios. 

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Elements of Selenium Webdriver

Types of Select Methods:

  1. selectByVisibleText Method: To select an option based on the text over the option.
dropdown.selectByVisibleText("Database Testing");

      2. selectByIndex Method:To select an option based on its index, beginning with 0.


      3. selectByValue Method: To select an option based on its ‘value’ attribute.

Types of DeSelect Methods:
  1. deselectByVisibleText Method: To deselect the option based on the text over the option.
  2. deselectByIndex Method: To deselect the option based on its index
  3. deselectByValue Method: To deselect the option its ‘value’ attribute.
  4. deselectAll Method:To deselect all the selected options. 

Right Click in Selenium:

In automation, right click is performed in selenium, just by performing actions like up, down or entering keys to select the desired context menu element. In order to perform the right click in selenium, we take the advantage of the Action class that is used to generate the complex gestures like right click, double click and drag and drop, etc.

Syntax to perform the right click on an element:

Actions action = new Actions(driver);

WebElement element = driver.findElement("elementId"));


Here, we are instantiating an object of Actions class. After that, we pass the WebElement to be right clicked as a parameter to the contestClick() method present in the Actions class. Then, we call the perform() method to perform the generated action.

Double Click in Selenium:

Similar to that of performing the right click on the lament, double click is also used to perform some actions on the elements by using the actions class.

Syntax to perform the double click on the element:

Actions action = new Actions(driver);

WebElement element = driver.findElement("elementId"));


Here, we are instantiating an object of Actions class. After that, we pass the WebElement to be double clicked as a parameter to the doubleClick() method present in the Actions class. Then, we call the perform() method to perform the generated action. 

Mouse Hover in selenium:

In order to perform mouse hover over an element, using selenium WebDriver with java, actions class is must.


Actions action = new Actions(driver);

WebElement element = driver.findElement("elementId"));


Here, we are instantiating an object of Actions class. After that, we pass the WebElement to be mouse hovered as a parameter to the moveToElement() method present in the Actions class. Then, we will call the perform() method to perform the generated action.

Drag and Drop in Selenium WebDriver:

In order to handle drag and drop events in the selenium WebDriver takes the advantage of the Actions class.To perform the drag and drop on an element, we need to use different methods of the Actions class namely:

  1. clickAndHold(WebElement element) – Clicks a web element at the middle(without releasing).
  2. moveToElement(WebElement element) – Moves the mouse pointer to the middle of the web element without clicking.
  3. release(WebElement element) – Releases the left click (which is in the pressed state).
  4. build() – Generates a composite action.

The following is the code snippet for performing the drag and drop operation is stated below:

//WebElement on which drag and drop operation needs to be performed

WebElement fromWebElement = driver.findElement(By Locator of fromWebElement);

//WebElement to which the above object is dropped

WebElement toWebElement = driver.findElement(By Locator of toWebElement);

//Creating an object of Actions class to build composite actions

Actions builder = new Actions(driver);

//Building drag and drop action

Action dragAndDrop = builder.clickAndHold(fromWebElement)




//Performing the drag and drop action


Handling Alerts:

With the help of the alert class, we can handle alerts in the selenium WebDriver. Click on “Generate Alert Box” and “Generate Confirm Box” buttons to generate the alert and confirm boxes. The script below will first generate alert boxes by clicking on these buttons and use alert class methods to accept/dismiss them.

public void alertAutomation() throws InterruptedException{

//Create firefox driver's instance

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

//Set implicit wait of 10 seconds

driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

//Launch sampleSiteForSelenium


//Handling alert boxes

//Click on generate alert button

driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("div#AlertBox button")).click();


//Using Alert class to first switch to or focus to the alert box

Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();

//Using accept() method to accep the alert box


//Handling confirm box

//Click on Generate Confirm Box

driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("div#ConfirmBox button")).click();


Alert confirmBox = driver.switchTo().alert();

//Using dismiss() command to dismiss the confirm box

//Similarly accept can be used to accept the confirm box



Scrolling a web page:

Scrolling an web page is needed inthe automation because the application requires scrolling up and down to show the full products list of an ecommerce store. For example, if you consider amazon ecommerce stores, if you want to look for more products, you need to scroll up or down, so that more items will be loaded on your page you are viewing.

Syntax for scrolling a web page:

JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor)driver;

js.executeScript("scrollBy(0, 2500)");

Refreshing a webpage in selenium:

There are several ways to refresh a webpage in selenium. They are :

1.Using driver.navigate() command

Syntax: driver.navigate().refresh();

2.Opening current URL using driver.getCurrentUrl() with driver.get() command


3.Opening current URL using driver.getCurrentUrl() with driver.navigate() command

Syntax: driver.navigate().to(driver.getCurrentUrl());

4.Pressing F5 key on any textbox using sendKeys command

Syntax: driver.findElement(By textboxLocator).sendKeys(Keys.F5);

5.Passing ascii value of F5 key i.e. “\uE035” using sendKeys command

Syntax: driver.findElement(By textboxLocator).sendKeys("\uE035");

Keyboard Actions in selenium WebDriver:

Selenium contains an Actions class that comes with different methods for keyboard interactions. There are 3 actions for handling the keyboard action, keyDown(),keyUP(), and sendKeys().

Actions Class methods for keyboard interactions:
  • keyDown(Keys modifierKey)-
    The keyDown(Keys modifierKey) method takes the modifier Keys as parameter. 
  • keyDown(WebElement element, Keys modifierKey)-
    This is another implementation of keyDown() method in which the modifier key press action is performed on a WebElement.
  • keyUp(Keys modifierKey)-
    The keyUp() method is used to simulate the modifier key-up or key-release action. This method follows a preceding key press action.
  • keyUp(WebElement element, Keys modifierKey)-
    This implementation of keyUp() method performs the key-release action on a web element.
  • sendKeys(CharSequence KeysToSend)-
    The sendKeys(CharSequence KeysToSend) method is used to send a sequence of keys to a currently focussed web element. 
  • sendKeys(WebElement element, CharSequence KeysToSend)-
    This implementation of sendKeys() method is used to send a sequence of keys to a web element.

Related Article: What is XPath in Selenium?

Selenium with TestNG:

TestNG Basics:

What is testNG?

TestNG is a JUnit-inspired testing framework that provides a range of features such as data-driven testing, parameterization support, different utility annotations and test case aggregation that help to construct stable and efficient testing projects.

Syntax: @Test

public void sampleTest() {   

   //Any test logic

   System.out.println("Hi! ArtOfTesting here!");   


Features of TestNG:

The different features associated with testNG are:

  • It comes with different types of assertions like checking the quality of the expected and actual result, asserting if the condition is true or false, etc.
  • Running tests in parallel.
  • It makes tests dependent on one another.
  • Prioritizing and grouping of the tests can be done easily.
  • It performs data driven testing and provides configurable reports.

Next we are going to learn how to test an application using testNG. In order to perform the testing we need an automation tool, testing framework or libraries, and the programming language that supports both the tools and libraries.

For UI automation-Selenium WebDriver is perfect, testNG as the testing framework and java as the programming language.

For example if you want to automate the Google calculator feature on the chrome browser, you need to run the test on the chrome browser. For this you need to set the system property and point to a chrome driver executable file-

  • Download the latest ChromeDriver binary from download page and place the executable on your local machine.
  • Set the property to the chromeDriver.exe’s location as-System.setProperty(“”, “chromeDriver.exe path”);

The following is the code snippet to perform the test on the Google calculator.

public class calculatorTest {


//Tests google calculator

public void googleCalculator(){

//Creating a driver object referencing WebDriver 

WebDriver driver;

          //Setting the property to its executable's location

System.setProperty("", "/lib/chromedriver.exe");

/Instantiating driver 

driver = new ChromeDriver();

//Set implicit wait of 10 seconds

driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

//Launch google


//Write 2+2 in google textbox

WebElement googleTextBox = driver.findElement("gbqfq"));


//Click on searchButton

WebElement searchButton = driver.findElement("gbqfb"));;

//Get result from calculator

WebElement calculatorTextBox = driver.findElement("cwos"));

String result = calculatorTextBox.getText();

//Verify that result of 2+2 is 4

Assert.assertEquals(result, "4");



TestNG Annotations:

An annotation is metadata that possesses information related to the class, method and interface. TestNG makes use of these annotations to provide several features that aid in the creation of a robust testing framework. 

Here, we are going to learn different testNG annotations. They are:

@Test:The @Test is the most important and commonly used annotation of TestNG. It is used to mark a method as Test. So, any method over which we see @Test annotation is considered as a TestNG test.


public void sampleTest() {   

   //Any test logic

   System.out.println("Hi! ArtOfTesting here!");   



The annotated method will run only once before all tests in this suite have run.


The annotated method will run only once after all tests in this suite have run.


The annotated method will run only once before the first test method in the current class is invoked.


The annotated method will run only once after all the test methods in the current class have been run.


The annotated method will run before any test method belonging to the classes inside the tag is run.


The annotated method will run after all the test methods belonging to the classes inside the tag have run.


Using @DataProvider we can create a data driven framework in which data is passed to the associated test method and multiple iteration of the test runs for the different test data values passed from the @DataProvider method. The method annotated with @DataProvider annotation return a 2D array or object.

//Data provider returning 2D array of 3*2 matrix

@DataProvider(name = "dataProvider1")

   public Object[][] dataProviderMethod1() {

      return new Object[][] {{"kuldeep","rana"}, {"k1","r1"},{"k2","r2"}};


   //This method is bound to the above data provider

   //The test case will run 3 times with different set of values

   @Test(dataProvider = "dataProvider1")

   public void sampleTest(String str1, String str2) {

      System.out.println(str1 + " " + str2);



The @Parameter tag is used to pass parameters to the test scripts. The value of the @Parameter tag can be passed through testng.xml file.

Sample testng.xml with parameter tag-

@Test (timeOut = 500)

      Sample Test Script with @Parameter annotation-

public class TestFile {



   public void parameterTest(String paramValue) {

      System.out.println("sampleParamName = " + sampleParamName);



TestNG provides us different kinds of listeners using which we can perform some action in case an event has triggered. Usually, testNG listeners are used for configuring reports and logging.


public class TestClass { 

    WebDriver driver= new FirefoxDriver();@Test 

    public void testMethod(){

    //test logic



The @Factory annotation helps in the dynamic execution of test cases. Using @Factory annotation, we can pass parameters to the whole test class at run time. The parameters passed can be used by one or more test methods of that class.

Data Driven Testing using @Dataprovider:

Data-driven testing can be carried out through TestNG using its @DataProvider annotation. A method with @DataProvider annotation over it returns a 2D array of the object where the rows determine the number of iterations and columns determine the number of input parameters passed to the Test method with each iteration.

This annotation takes only the name of the data provider as its parameter which is used to bind the data provider to the Test method. If no name is provided, the method name of the data provider is taken as the data provider’s name.

@DataProvider(name = "nameOfDataProvider")

public Object[][] dataProviderMethodName() {

//Data generation or fetching logic from any external source

//returning 2d array of object

return new Object[][] {{"k1","r1",1},{"k2","r2",2}};


After the creation of the data provider method, we can associate a Test method with a data provider using the ‘dataProvider’ attribute of @Test annotation. For successful binding of data providers with the Test method, the number and data type of parameters of the test method must match the ones returned by the data provider method.

@Test(dataProvider = "nameOfDataProvider")

public void sampleTest(String testData1, String testData2, int testData3) {

System.out.println(testData1 + " " + testData2 + " " + testData3);


Running tests in parallel using testNG:

We can perform the parallel processing of the tests by using the TestNG suite. In order to make the test execution of the testNG parallel, testng.xml file comes with suitetest, classes, packages with the suite being the root tag.

In order to run tests in parallel we need to add two key value pairs to the suite section as below

  • parallel=”{methods/tests/classes}”
  • thread-count=”{number of thread you want to run simultaneously}”.

Multi-Browser testing:

Multi-browser testing is to support testing in multiple browsers. For this we need to use the @paramterannotation of the testNG that passes different values of the browser to test the script s from the testng.xml file.

The value of the browser parameter can then be used to instantiate the corresponding driver class of Selenium WebDriver. As the browser value is used across all the test methods so, it is better to use the browser variable in @BeforeTest method.



public void setBrowser(String browser)


   if (browser.equalsIgnoreCase("Firefox")) {

      driver = new FirefoxDriver();    


   else if (browser.equalsIgnoreCase("Chrome")) {


         + pathToChromeDriverBinary + "chromedriver.exe");

      driver = new ChromeDriver();


   else {

      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid browser value!!");



   driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);



As discussed above the value of the browser variable will be passed to the test scripts through testng.xml file. This testng.xml file will have a parameter tag containing the browser variable and its value.

Here, we will create two tests, one each for Firefox and Chrome browser with different browser values. Refer to the below snippet of testng.xml file to understand the test parameterization concept.

Indeed, having parallel=”tests” in the Suite tag makes the two tests run in parallel.

On executing the test using testng.xml, the test will run in parallel for all the specified browsers(Firefox and Chrome in case of our example).

Soft Assertion in TestNG:

Assertions are used to compare the actual result with the expected ones. For example, if we had multiple assertions in our test method and wanted to execute some code after the particular assertion statement,in that scenario testNG comes with the SoftAssert class.

Syntax: SoftAssert softAssert = new SoftAssert();
TimeOut in testNG:

If you want to limit the test execution time by specifying an upper limit of timeout exceeding which the test method is marked as a failure. TestNG provides us timeOut attributes for handling these requirements. In the @Test annotation, the timeOut attribute is specified with a particular value, if the test method exceeds that value then it shows failure by throwing the ThreadTimeoutException.

Syntax: @Test(timeOut = 1000)


Selenium is an open-source tool with web-automation testing capabilities having different components. These components help developers in different environments to test software. Moreover, Selenium supports different languages, OS, and browsers during automation testing.  

It has many benefits as well as some limitations. Selenium is the best tool for test automation as it is easy to implement and use. There is a large developer community that frequently updates it with new changes. Also, it is compatible with any device like Android, iPhone, etc. So, using this testing tool will give many benefits in software automation testing. I hope you have gone through the tutorial to gain all the basic skills regarding Selenium.

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As a senior technical content writer for HRK tainings, srivalli patchava has a greater understanding of today's data-driven environment, which includes key aspects of data management and IT organizations. She manages the task of creating great content in the areas of software testing, DevOps, Robotic process automation. Connects with her on Linkedin and Twitter.