SAP R3 Architecture

SAP (System Application and Product) was indeed the brand of the largest European German software company and the name of the software on its own. The five IBM employees founded the company in 1972. SAP R/3 Software was created using the ABAP/4 programming language.SAP is also an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system that tries to transform all of the business's different modules (SD, MM, CO, HR, and so on). The integration ensures that data is consistent throughout the system and the corporation as a whole. In this blog post, we are going to discuss the SAP r3 architecture, layers and its components, working process in a more detailed way.


SAP R/3 has been one of SAP's main products, where R stands for RealTime and 3 refers to three-tier application architecture (Database,Application Server and Client).

In the modern environment, the SAP R/3 system powers the majority of businesses.

This software was used by approximately 80% of the businesses.

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Why SAP R3 architecture?

The primary goal of R/3 Architecture is to provide a set of tightly coupled, major business applications. The typical range of hypotheses for any R/3 process is as follows:

  • Production Planning
  • Materials Management
  • Sales and Distribution
  • Financial Accounting
  • Controlling, Etc

SAP R3 Architecture:

SAP R/3 Architecture simplifies and connects all of an organization's business transactions through real-time integration. Real-time integration ensures that any change or upgrade in one application causes the data in the other applications to be automatically modified or updated.

We are aware of the SAP R/3 Architecture, specifically the client-server software. This ensures that the R/3 system's groups and layers are designed to run concurrently on a number of different computing devices. When a business wants to install SAP software, each component is stored, regulated, and filtered using the equipment of completely separate and specialized computer systems.

Each layer has the ability to call on all of the other layers built to complete the task. Clients are components/layers that request services, while servers are components/layers that deliver services. This is referred to as "client/server."

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This R/3 Architecture's three Conceptual Layers are... The R/3 Framework's classic configuration includes the following software layers:

  • Presentation layer
  • Application layer and 
  • Database layer

Presentation layer:

Receives user input and produces a method request. The Presentation Layer is a user interface that can use a variety of different graphical user interfaces ( GUIs). SAPGUI is SAP's proprietary user interface program over 20 languages.

The presentation or GUI layer includes collaborating keyboard and mouse information from the device and submits it to the application layer inside the form of workflow requests for the further computation. When the layer receives application layer outcome, it recopy it and exhibits text and graphical data on the user's PC screen.

Application layer:

Receives and processes a process request using the Software Logic Application.

The application layer is made up of R/3's core components. The application server layer is where the majority of R/3 business logic processing takes place. The dispatcher is in charge of the job procedures here.

The comprehensive logic of R/3 implementations for business operations is provided by the database server. A system may well be connected to a range of different application servers that are geographically distributed.

Database Layer:

All data is saved and recovered. The Database Layer is in charge of both the R/3 Framework's application elements and the enterprise's working data. As needed, applications are downloaded from the database, loaded into the application layer, and executed from there.

The database component contains an engine whose sole purpose is to retrieve the data on the application layer's behalf. SAP R/3 interfaces with its supporting databases using the industry-standard database access language SQL.

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Components of SAP R3 architecture:

In the application layer there are several elements or components that carry out different operations. Now we will check one after the other.

  • Message Server: In an ABAP system, it handles communication between distributed dispatchers.
  • Dispatcher Queue: This queue stores various types of work processes.
  • Dispatcher: This component distributes requests to work processes.
  • Gateway: It allows collaboration between some of the SAP systems and external systems.
  • ABAP-Work processes: It implements dialog steps in R/3 applications separately.
  • Memory-pipes: It allows ICM and ABAP work processes to communicate with one another.
  • Message Server: It is in charge of java dispatchers and server processes.
  • It allows for communication within the Java runtime environment.
  • Enqueue Server: It manages logical locks set by a Java application program in a server process.
  • Central Services: A specific example of the central services is required by Java cluster for managing locks and transmitting messages and data. A Java cluster is a
  • collection of processes that collaborate to create a dependable system. An instance is a collection of resources such as memory and work processes.
  • Java Dispatcher: This process receives client requests and routes them to the server process.
  • J2EE components are installed using SDM: Software Deployment Manager.
  • Java Server Processes: It can handle a large number of requests at the same time.
  • Threading: When different tasks execute independently in the background, this is referred to as threading.
  • ICM: It facilitates communication between the SAP system and the HTTP, HTTPS, and SMTP protocols. This means that by entering the system URL into the browser, you can also access SAP from the browser.

How does SAP R3 architecture work?

SAP R/3 Processes are being used to successfully manage os resource requirements for the software program. The technique is inextricably linked to the software application. Memory, as well as system support for renewable energy, are accessible for any operation. The on request is determined by the type of work performed in the application server.

The SAP DISPATCHER, SAP's proprietary control agent, is located in the R/3 Basis kernel. The deploying device, in collaboration with the respective operating system, manages the facilities used by R/3 systems to control their operational activities. The exact number of activities varies depending on the configuration. The dispatcher's main function is to filter the working process that has been submitted.

There are specific work process models for:

  • Online work process dialogue -Interactive SAPGUI screen processing request
  • Updating the database as part of the work process
  • Background Work Process -used for background processing, such as batch jobs.
  • Spool work procedure-Spooling/Printing procedure
  • Work process-lock management should be enqueued.


In this blog post we had clearly disused all the points related to the SAP R3 architecture in a clear cut manner. If you have any queries please drop your comments to get them resolved. Happy learning at HKR trainings.

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As a Senior Writer for HKR Trainings, Sai Manikanth has a great understanding of today’s data-driven environment, which includes key aspects such as Business Intelligence and data management. He manages the task of creating great content in the areas of Digital Marketing, Content Management, Project Management & Methodologies, Product Lifecycle Management Tools. Connect with him on LinkedIn and Twitter.

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