Vulnerability in Cyber Security

Every business deals with a massive set of data, including its clients, customers, and employees. Data is the common point to build a strong network of clients and customers, and it needs to be secured from outside breaches. It requires a strong understanding of multiple Cyber Security vulnerabilities. However, the value and quantity of data have greatly increased with the growing businesses. Therefore, many companies started recruiting more professionals like Cyber Security Engineers, Cyber Security Analysts, Information Security Analysts, etc. They help to manage business operations securely and smoothly and protect the data from cyber threats.

This blog will discuss various cyber security vulnerabilities that experts generally deal with. Also, we will discuss their causes, types, and many other aspects.

What is meant by Vulnerability in Cyber Security?

Vulnerability in Cybersecurity is a weakness or an opportunity within the IT system or the entity's internal control system. Cyber attackers can exploit it to gain unknown access to the network and systems of the enterprise. These attackers try to access the systems illegally or ethically, severely damaging the privacy of enterprise data and networks. Thus, monitoring multiple vulnerabilities in cyber security becomes necessary to avoid severe issues. Also, it is essential to identify network gaps that can give a way to breach the security system. Moreover, effectively managing cyber security vulnerabilities can enhance the security system's capacity and reduce attacks.

Why are Cyber Security vulnerabilities a big problem?

Cyber Security vulnerabilities are a major concern for many business enterprises today. These weaknesses provide cyber attackers with a way to access the company's systems and data illegally. They exploit these systems by locating the network gaps and severely damage business data and control systems. However, there are some reasons why vulnerabilities in cyber security are a major problem:

  • The vulnerabilities can be exploited by malicious attackers, which leads to data breaches, heavy privacy violations, identity theft, etc.
  • These system weaknesses can be utilized to steal data through Ransomware attacks. They encrypt the systems using a code and demand money for decryption.
  • Cyber threats can lead to financial losses for many, including businesses, government agencies, and individuals, through fund theft, service disruptions, etc.
  • Cyber attacks can heavily damage an entity's reputation.
  • Moreover, cyber attackers can also target the intellectual property rights of a business or individual.

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Causes of Cyber Security Vulnerabilities

There are multiple causes of Vulnerabilities in cyber security. Let us discuss some of these vulnerabilities:

  • Complexity: The complexity of systems makes it harder to manage security effectively due to increasing flaws, mispositioning, unauthorized access, etc. Moreover, complexity in interactions, dependencies, poor configurations, etc., also introduces unknown susceptibility.
  • Connectivity: IoT-based connected devices are more prone to cyber threats as hackers can identify and compromise their endpoints. Due to a lack of solid security and poor internet service, cyber threats will increase more and more.
  • Flaws in Operating System: Operating Systems may contain unknown flaws. Therefore, using an OS with less security can give complete access to attackers. They can inject viruses, malware, or ransomware to destroy the system.
  • Familiarity: Some cyber attackers may have familiarity with the commonly used codes, passwords, software, OS, hardware systems, etc. This familiarity can cause severe damage to sensitive data.
  • Unchecked user input: If the software assumes that the given user input is very secure, then SQL injection automatically executes without the user's perception.
  • Inadequate Security Policies: Lack of Cyber Security awareness, improper training, and the design of wrong security policies can lead to potential threats.
  • Internet: Poor network design can lead to many intrusions by attackers as the internet contains numerous malware, adware, and spyware.
  • Poorly managed security: Poor security management, including weak or repeated passwords, can also lead to security breaches.
  • Software Bugs: Sometimes an error in code while developing, including software, can lead to weakness in the system. These bugs in software can allow unauthorized access or any malicious activity.
  • Humans: Many businesses face severe threats from social engineering, like phishing, where humans misrepresent themselves and damage their privacy and security.

Common Types of Vulnerability in Cyber Security

The following are some of the common types of vulnerabilities in cyber security:

1. Misconfigurations

Network systems with diverse security controls can include incorrect system settings. Due to the increase in digital transformations by multiple business entities and enterprises, network errors are rising. Moreover, cyber attackers generally look for weak configurations and network gaps to intrude. Hence, it becomes essential to use the services of experienced and skilled security experts while deploying new software.

2. Unsecured APIs

APIs help move private data from a user's system to external users. Hence, an insecure or poorly maintained API can lead to a data breach. Using accurate or secured API to protect sensitive data becomes essential. Cybercriminals generally target the insecure APIs where user communication takes place.

3. Outdated Software

It is always suggested to use updated software or applications as they are updated occasionally. Unpatched systems or outdated software are always the target of cyber attackers. They identify the gaps or patches made to the software and in the absence of which they are compromised. Therefore, it becomes essential to program a timely patch management system that automatically updates the software patches as they release.

4. Zero-day Vulnerabilities

Zero-day vulnerabilities refer to security issues in software, hardware, or computer systems that malicious attackers utilize within no time. Hackers perform these attacks before the developers are aware of those vulnerabilities. Thus, the term zero-day means developers have only zero days to identify and fix the vulnerability before the same is exploited. In other words, it is a security flaw exploited on the same day, leaving no time to safeguard the organization or its users.

5. Missing or Poor Data Encryption

Attackers will find intercepting connectivity between users and the network easier if there is poor network encryption. Due to poor or missing data encryption, cyber adversaries may extract crucial data and insert false information on the server. Moreover, this might harm a company's efforts to comply with cyber security laws and result in costly fines from regulatory agencies.

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What is Vulnerability Management?

Vulnerability management refers to locating, classifying, resolving, and reducing security vulnerabilities within software, applications, or networks. Moreover, it aims to protect the organization's digital assets from unknown threats and reduce risks related to vulnerability management. Further, this weakness management has three essential components such as:

  • Vulnerability Detection
  • Vulnerability Assessment
  • Addressing Vulnerabilities

Let us understand these components in detail.

1) Vulnerability Detection

Detection of weakness has the following three methods through which a vulnerability is detected within the system, software, or applications:

2) Vulnerability Scanning

The name vulnerability scanning suggests that issues can be identified in computer systems, apps, and networks. Vulnerability scanning needs a scanner to find and locate vulnerabilities that generally emerge from poor coding in the network or misconfiguration. Some popular tools are available for vulnerability scanning, such as ManageEngine Vulnerability Manager Plus, Rapid7 Nexpose, Acutenix, etc.

3) Penetration Testing

Penetration or pen testing is conducted to test IT assets to identify security flaws that an attacker can exploit. Further, it also helps to test employees' security awareness, security policies, conformity to various compliance needs, and response to security events. Moreover,
Pen testing can be done manually or with automation.

4) Google Hacking

Google hacking refers to finding security vulnerabilities using a search engine. You can accomplish this using complex search operators within queries that can find information difficult to locate and which has been unintentionally made public due to misconfiguration in cloud services. Moreover, these focused queries are generally used to locate the most sensitive or crucial data not meant for public display.

Vulnerability Assessment

After identifying the vulnerabilities, the next step is to assess the cyber security vulnerabilities. It is the process of verifying security weaknesses extensively across the information system that can damage the organization's data. Further, it focuses on the system's vulnerabilities whenever exposed to them, classifies the intensity level, and suggests suitable remediation or mitigation if necessary.


The first step in the cyber security vulnerability assessment is to address it. It requires different methods to find anomalies, such as network scanning, checking firewall logs, pen testing, and vulnerability scanning. After addressing the anomaly, you can act towards it through the following methods: Remediation, Mitigation, and Acceptance.

1) Remediation

This process suggests that the vulnerability is already fixed or patching is done under repairing the exposure. The remediation method is highly preferred as it minimizes risk by updating the impacted software.

2) Mitigation

The mitigation method reduces the vulnerability risk so it can't be exploited heavily. However, this method is generally used to buy additional time or extend the validity until a suitable remedy is released.

3) Acceptance

The acceptance method is used when an organization determines that the vulnerability has less risk and is acceptable. There is no need to take further action to resolve the issue. Further, the acceptance method is also used if the cost of fixing the weakness exceeds the fixing price of exploited proneness.

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What Is the Distinction Between Vulnerability and Risk?

There is a great difference between the terms vulnerability and risk. Vulnerability refers to the inherent weaknesses or flaws in the system, software, or apps that help attackers exploit the system. If there is a potential point of failure, it can be prone to technical malfunction or exploited by attackers. Moreover, weaknesses arise due to unknown flaws in design, configuration errors, or weak security controls. They make the systems prone to such attacks.

On the other hand, risks refer to the potential damage or loss which has a probability of happening through exploiting a vulnerability. It includes an event's chance probability and the intensity of its impact.

You can also understand this through a simple example. Imagine the tallest building has a weak foundation which makes the building vulnerable to collapse during an Earthquake. The risk involved here is assessing the chances of an Earthquake that may occur in that place and estimating the severe damage and harm that could come out of the building collapse.

Examples of Vulnerabilities in CyberSecurity

The following are the most famous examples of Cyber Security Vulnerabilities:

  • Software Vulnerabilities
  • Social Engineering
  • Poor data encryption
  • Insider threats
  • Usage of broken algorithms
  • Weak password management
  • Unpatched systems
  • Misconfigured systems
  • Zero-day exploits
  • Physical security breaches
  • Uploading unlimited harmful files
  • Downloading codes without checking their integrity
  • Redirecting URLs to harmful websites/pages

A vulnerability in cyber security occurs when there is a weakness in the security system, poor password, network management, etc. The increasing complexity of networks made the management of cybersecurity vulnerabilities much more critical. Therefore, knowing the internal network systems in-depth is necessary to manage cyber security vulnerabilities. So, learn Cyber Security concepts to know about weaknesses and the chances of risk associated with them.

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Research Analyst
As a content writer at HKR trainings, I deliver content on various technologies. I hold my graduation degree in Information technology. I am passionate about helping people understand technology-related content through my easily digestible content. My writings include Data Science, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Python, Salesforce, Servicenow and etc.

Reducing vulnerability involves taking sufficient measures to reduce the risk and safeguard yourself along with your assets. The safety measures you can take to minimize the system weaknesses include:

  • Physical Security
  • Cyber Security
  • Health & well-being
  • Social interactions
  • Knowledge and awareness.

Physical vulnerability in cyber security refers to the flaws in the data system or physical aspects of the computer systems, networks, etc., that attackers can exploit. Also, it includes identifying potential threats that can occur from physical components of the system or network.

Vulnerability is essential for a better human experience, which gives the strength to know and overcome barriers. Further, vulnerabilities are necessary for many reasons, such as valid relationships, emotional growth, learning and adaptation to change, innovation, resilience, conflict resolution, etc. Similarly, Cyber security vulnerabilities can strengthen the system more.