Selenium Versions

In order to assist browser automation, Selenium provides a variety of tools and frameworks, since it is an open source platform. Without having to understand a test scripting language, it offers a playback tool for building functional tests that work across the majority of current web browsers. Selenium offers automation across numerous platforms, programming languages, and browsers. In this article, we will discuss various versions of Selenium which are Selenium 1, Selenium 2, Selenium 3, and Selenium 4 in detail.

Versions of Selenium

Below are the different versions of Selenium:

  • Selenium 1
  • Selenium 2
  • Selenium 3
  • Selenium 4

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Let us now have a look at them in detail:

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Selenium 1

The implementation layer, or more simply put, the architecture of both Selenium 1 often referred to as RC and Web Driver, differs in many ways.

As the name implies, RC is a remote control that operates by utilizing the remote of the internet to insert test automation code into authored custom scripts.
The Web Driver, also referred to as Selenium 2, operates on the internet directly and executes the automated test created by the tester using features integrated into the browser. The Web driver seems to be the Remote Control's replacement.

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The architecture of Selenium 1 is as follows:

Architecture of Selenium 1

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Selenium 2

Web Driver integration with Selenium RC is all that Selenium 2 is (Selenium1). A well-known framework, Selenium 1, supports a wide range of browsers thanks to its JavaScript code. Each browser's Web Driver—a headless, incredibly quick browser emulator—is designed to help users exit the JavaScript Sandbox. Selenium 2 incorporates the benefits of Selenium 1 and Web Driver while also removing some of its shortcomings.

Selenium 3

This serves as a drop-in replacement for Web Driver API users. The main modification was the replacement of the core with the back-end Web Driver. The W3C (global web consortium) has adopted Selenium 3.0 as a standard.
Selenium 3 is primarily intended to be a software testing tool of choice for both web-based and mobile apps. Because the JSON wire protocol underlies the browser interaction, the API must be encoded and decoded.

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The architecture of Selenium 3 is as follows:

Architecture of Selenium 3

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Selenium 4

In order to explain the most recent changes, Selenium 4 has updated all of the official Selenium publications, including the web driver, IDE, and Grid.

The new version of Selenium IDE is released with more functionality and is used to record and playback user interaction with the browser. As a result of adhering to the W3C standard Protocol, communication between the driver and the browser occurs directly without the need for API encoding and decoding.

Updated features in Selenium 4

  • Before, there was no option for users to take a snapshot of a specific web element; instead, they could only take screenshots of the entire page. However, users of Selenium 4 can snapshot a particular web element.
  • With Selenium 4, you can now simultaneously open a URL in a new tab and an existing one.
  • You can also launch a new window in the same browser by using Selenium 4.
  • Users may now obtain the coordinates, height, dimension, width, etc. as the position of the webpages or object with Selenium 4.
  • These are also referred to as "Friendly Locators," and this feature is being provided to discover the web element that is present close to another web element, or, to put it another way, it can locate the web components based on GUI position.
  • There have been some internal modifications made to the API in the new Selenium version. The Chrome driver earlier in Selenium 3 extends immediately to the Remote Web Driver. Nevertheless, Chromium Driver is now a subclass of Chrome Driver in Selenium 4. The Chromium Driver class includes a few built-in ways to access the developer tool.


In this article, we have discussed various versions of Selenium which are Selenium 1, Selenium 2, Selenium 3, and Selenium 4 along with their features. The introduction to Selenium 4 and several upcoming features for Selenium Grid, IDE, and Selenium WebDriver has been covered in this tutorial.

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As a content writer at HKR trainings, I deliver content on various technologies. I hold my graduation degree in Information technology. I am passionate about helping people understand technology-related content through my easily digestible content. My writings include Data Science, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Python, Salesforce, Servicenow and etc.


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