Selenium Framework

The Selenium Framework is defined as a code structure simplifying as well as accelerating code maintenance. Users may place "code" and "data" in the same location without frameworks, which can neither be reused nor read. Frameworks produce advantageous results such as increased code reusability, greater portability, lower script maintenance costs, improved code readability, and so on. In this article, we will discuss more selenium frameworks such as the need for selenium frameworks, types of selenium frameworks, and much more.

What is Selenium Framework

Selenium is unquestionably a well-known test framework for performing automation on the web browser for testing. Selenium is a well-known automation testing suite for automating mobile and desktop web interactions. Automation testing can be performed by writing code in any language supported by Selenium and then running the automation scripts for automating the process of testing an app.
There's more here than needs to meet the eye. Selenium is not a single framework, but rather a collection of frameworks packaged together as a suite. A toolbox was created to make the life of a test engineer easier. It is required when developing robust, browser-based statistical automation suites and tests.

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Types of Selenium Framework

There are 3 types of Selenium frameworks that are created by Selenium WebDriver for automating manual test cases. Let us have a look at them below:

  • Hybrid Test Framework
  • Data Driven Test Framework
  • Keyword Driven Test Framework

Selenium Framework

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Data-Driven Test Framework

In Selenium, the Data Driven Framework is a process of separating various data sets out of the test case. Once the data sets have been differentiated from the test case, modifying them for specific functions is simple without changing the code. It is used to retrieve unit tests and suites from external databases such as Excel ,.csv,.xml, or database tables.

Data-Driven Test Framework

Apache provides a well-known library POI for reading and writing Excel. This library can read and write Excel files in the XLS and XLSX formats.
POI library provides an HSSF implementation for reading XLS files.

Keyword-Driven Test Framework

The Selenium Keyword Driven Framework is a method for accelerating test automation by separating keywords for a popular set of tasks and instructions. All operations and instructions are written in an external file, such as an Excel sheet. Users have complete control over and specify the features and functionality they like to test.

Keyword-Driven Test Framework

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Hybrid Test Framework

In Selenium, a hybrid framework is a concept in which we use the benefits of both a keyword-driven framework and a data-driven framework. It is a simple framework that enables manual test participants to create unit tests by simply looking only at keywords, test data, and object databases without having to code in the framework. To maintain test cases, we will use Excel files for keywords, and also for test data, designers can use data from suppliers of the Testing framework.

Hybrid Test Framework

We don't need to change anything in our hybrid framework from the Keyword driven framework; we simply need to replace the Executable file with the HybridExecute file in the .java extension.

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Why do we need the Selenium Framework?

Now that we've covered the basics of Selenium as well as the tools available, let's look at the key points of Selenium and reasons why it's a good tool for automated testing:

  • Open Source: Because Selenium is an open source, no licensing or costs are required; it is completely free to access and use. This is not true of many other automated test tools on the market.
  • Mimic User Actions: As previously stated, Selenium WebDriver can mimic user input. In real-world scenarios, you can automate events such as key presses, mouse keystrokes, drag, and drop, click as well as hold, selecting, and much more.
  • Easy Implementation: Selenium WebDriver is well-known for being a consumer-friendly tool for automation. Because Selenium is open source, users can create extensions to meet their specific requirements.
  • Tools: Every scenario requires a different tool. As previously stated, Selenium is just a suite of tools, and you'll most probably find something which fits your scenario and working style.
  • Language support: Multilingual support is a significant advantage. Selenium supports all the major programming languages, including Java, Python, JavaScript, Ruby, C sharp, Perl,.Net, and PHP, providing the developer with a great deal of freedom and versatility.
  • Browser: Selenium supports a wide range of browsers, operating systems, and devices. , Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Edge, Safari, and Internet Explorer are examples of operating systems and browsers (Windows, Linux, Mac)
  • Framework Support: Selenium furthermore supports a variety of frameworks such as Maven, Junit, and TestNG to help with testing automation. For automating the continuous delivery, CI and CD tools such as Jenkins are also supported.
  • Reusability: WebDriver scripts are cross-browser compatible. As a result, testers can run different testing scenarios using the same base.
  • Support from the Community: The Selenium group is very active and welcoming. As a result, there is a wealth of information and assistance available when needed.
  • Advanced User Input: WebDriver allows you to request that the browser's back and front buttons be clicked. A useful feature when trying to test money transfer apps, for example. This feature is uncommon in many tools, particularly open source.

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Benefits of Selenium Framework

  • Increased code re-usage: Selenium framework has the capability of reusing the code by making use of the pre-existing code during the development of new software or a new function.
  • High flexibility: The selenium framework gets adapted to the new environment as soon as it arises.
  • Improved code readability: The framework has a feature of code readability meaning it tends to make the existing code crystal plain to the reader. The likelihood is that other developers will read the code present in the framework and can easily comprehend or modify it.
  • Reduced script support: The feature of compressed code is available for the users of the selenium framework. This feature also removes the unrequired code from the software.


  • Using Selenium WebDriver, we can create three different types of test frameworks.
  • Data Driven Framework, Keyword Driven framework, and Hybrid test framework are the 3 types of frameworks available in Selenium.
  • Using TestNG's data provider, we can create a data-driven framework.
  • Keywords are written in external files such as excel files in the Keyword driven framework, and java code would then call this file and start executing test cases.
  • The hybrid framework is defined as a cross between a keyword-driven and a data-driven framework.

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Selenium frameworks FAQ's

There are three frameworks available in Selenium that help automate manual test cases. They are- Data driven, Keyword driven, and Hybrid test frameworks.

Selenium is the most widely used open-source tool for web browser automation. It allows you to write test scripts in various coding languages, like Ruby, Python, Java, etc., through a single interface it offers.

It is a suite of various automation testing tools based on the JavaScript framework that helps to run tests directly on the given browser. It removes the need for manual testing, which is time-consuming.

Selenium is a front-end web application testing tool that automates web browsers.

The most popularly used framework for Selenium Webdriver is “TestNG,” which holds data-driven testing features.