Scrum Framework

Scrum is an intercatice, easy, people centric framework designed on the core values of scrum such as openness, commitment, courage, respect and focus. The Scrum framework consists of Scrum teams aligned with Scrum Roles, Scrum Ceremonies, Scrum Artifacts and Scrum Rules. Each aspect of the Scrum structure has unique grounds and is a key factor in Scrum's success, whilst the Scrum rules bind together ceremonies, roles and artefacts to regulate the partnership among them.

Scrum Framework:

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Scrum roles

Scrum framework consists of 3 scrum roles, they are:

  • Product owner
  • Scrum master and 
  • Development team.

The Product Owner (PO) focuses primarily on optimising the value of the product and on teamwork. The entire company follows the decisions of PO. The PO is the only one to handle the Backlog of Items. This contains the following:

  • Addressing explicitly the commodity backlog products. 
  • Focusing on improving the Product Backlog products to meet the aims of the project. 
  • Enhancing the importance of your teamwork. 
  • Maintaining the backlog of the commodity is open to everyone. 
  • Make sure that the team knows the things in the Product Backlog.

The Scrum Master is the chief of the Scrum squad. He or she leads the team and the Product Owner ensures that all Agile strategies are correctly followed by the team members. The Scrum Master is also not concerned with solving all the problems faced in the Agile development process, but also allows companies, product owners, teams and individuals to achieve their goals.

The Scrum Development Team is a cross-functional community of professionals who can identify, build and evaluate the necessary product. The size of the development team is 5-9 people and must have all the expertise needed to deliver high quality software. The Production Team is a self-organized team that will decide the way to reach a conclusion during software development.

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Scrum Rules:

Describing a collection of Scrum rules that must be followed within the Scrum system for software development: The rules are different for different members of the team and are classified as follows:

  • Sprint related rules
  • Product backlog related rules
  • Scrum rules related to team members
  • Scrum rules related to scrum master role
  • Scrum rules  related to product owner roles.

Sprint related rules: 

  • Sprint length should be long enough to provide substantive work and short enough to ease the planning process. 
  • Each Sprint involves Sprint Planning and Sprint Planning meetings must be planned for 2 hours or a week of Sprint duration. 
  • Each Sprint is of the same length. 
  • Each Sprint should have a length of 4 weeks or less. 
  • Possibly shippable products must be an outcome at the end of each Sprint.
Product backlog related rules:
  • Both inventory backlog items (PBI) indicated in the product should be linked to the same product. 
  • In the Product Backlog, two PBIs cannot have the same position. 
  • PBIs are distributed in the form of user storeys. 

Scrum rules related to team members

  • As a part of the squad, no Scrum Activities can be skipped. 
  • As a member of the team, he/she can work collaboratively to meet the 'Concept of Completed.'
Scrum rules related to scrum master roles:
  • As a Scrum Master, he or she has the authority to pursue the best way to execute the Scrum process. 
  • Scrum Master needs to take care of timeboxes inside a squad. 
  • As a Scrum Master, he or she eliminates the challenges that the team faces and helps to achieve the 'Concept of Done.' 

Scrum rules related to the role of the Product Owner (PO): 

  • PO can place defects at the top of the backlog of the product. 
  • PO still allows team members to select a number of PBIs to do in a single Sprint.

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Scrum artifacts

Scrum Artifacts provide crucial information to Scrum team members and stakeholders about how the product is being produced and the tasks to be carried out, and on what tasks are being prepared for the project.

A scrum process contains the following things namely:
  • User stories: they are a brief description of the features of the device under evaluation. Example for the insurance agent is: "Premium can be paid using the online system." 
  • Product Backlog: This is a list of user stories taken from a scrum product. The owner of the product shall plan and manage the backlog of the product. Priority is granted to the owner of the product, and anyone can add to it with the permission of the owner of the product.
  • Release Backlog: Release is a time limit for the amount of iterations to be done. The Product Owner communicates with the Scrum Master to determine which stories should be targeted for publication. Stories in the update backlog are intended to be completed in the release. 
  • Sprints: It is a fixed amount of time to complete user stories, determined by the product owner and the developer team, usually 2-4 weeks of time.
  • Sprint Backlog: It's a collection of user storeys to complete in a sprint. Work is never allocated during the sprint backlog, and the team signs up for work on their own. It is owned and operated by the team while the approximate work remaining is updated on a regular basis. This is the list of activities to be completed in Sprint. 
  • Block List: This is a list of blocks and unmade decisions held by the scrum master and updated regularly.
  • Burndown chart: Burndown chart reflects the cumulative success of work in progress and work completed in the process. It reflects the storeys and features not completed in a graph format.

Testing activities in scrum

Testers carry out follow-up activities at the different phases of Scrum-they are:

  • Sprint planning
  • Sprint
  • Sprint Retrospective

In sprint planning testers perform the following things. They are:

  • In sprint preparation, the tester should select a user-story from the product backlog that should be checked. 
  • As a tester, he/she can determine how many hours (Effort Estimation) it takes to complete the test for each of the selected user storeys. 
  • As a tester, he/she needs to know what the sprint targets are. 
  • As a tester, contribute to the prioritisation process.

In sprint testers do the following things.They are:

  • Supporting developers in unit testing 
  • Check the user-story when it's over. 
  • As a tester, he/she joins every day a stand-up meeting to speak up. 
  • As a tester, he/she will bring back any backlog item that cannot be completed in the current sprint and put it to the next sprint. 
  • Tester is responsible for the development of automation scripts.
  • Review the automation results of the CI and submit reports to stakeholders 
  • Performing non-functional testing of authorised user storeys 
  • Coordinate with the consumer and the owner of the product to determine the approval requirements for the acceptance tests 
  • At the end of the sprint, the tester also conducts acceptance tests (UAT) in some cases and confirms the completeness of the test for the current sprint.

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Sprint Retrospective:
  • As a tester, he'll find out what went wrong and what went right in the current sprint. 
  • As a tester, he describes lessons learned and best practises.

Conclusion:

Through the above blog post you have gained the complete overview or the architecture of scrum framework, the roles, responsibilities and the rules opted by the different teams on using the scrum methodology in their business activities. Wants to  get complete information about scrum,  please go through the scrum Tutorial here.

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Kavya Gowda
Kavya Gowda
Research Analyst
Kavya works for HKR Trainings institute as a technical writer with diverse experience in many kinds of technology-related content development. She holds a graduate education in the Computer science and Engineering stream. She has cultivated strong technical skills from reading tech blogs and also doing a lot of research related to content. She manages to write great content in many fields like Programming & Frameworks, Enterprise Integration, Web Development, SAP, and Business Process Management (BPM). Connect her on LinkedIn and Twitter.