RPA Vs Selenium

Robotic Process Automation (RPA), is a software technology that makes it easy to build, deploy and manage software robots that emulate human actions interacting with digital systems and Software. But software robots can do it faster and more consistently than people, without the need to get up and stretch or take a coffee break. Selenium is basically used to automate the testing across various web browsers. It supports various browsers like Chrome, Mozilla, Firefox, Safari, and IE, and you can very easily automate browser testing across these browsers using Selenium WebDriver. In the below, let us discuss what is RPA, what is Selenium & other concepts.

What is RPA?

RPA is defined as the art of using software robots to interact with software-as-a-service applications and IT systems to automate the rule-based manual jobs associated with repetitive and transactional processes. RPA is a software technology that makes it easy to build, deploy, and manage software robots that emulate human actions interacting with digital systems and software. 

RPA is a software technology that makes it easy to build, deploy and manage software robots that emulate humans' actions interacting with digital systems and software. RPA is more than a buzzword. It’s a technology that’s transforming the way organizations collect, review and input data. Its backbone is a software configuration or “Digital Worker”, Which is programmed to gather and process data without human intervention.

What is Selenium?

Selenium is a portable software testing framework for web applications. The tests can be written as HTML tables or coded in a number of popular programming languages and can be run directly in most modern web browsers. Selenium can be deployed on Windows, Linux, and Macintosh. There are four components of Selenium those are

  • WebDriver
  • Selenium Grid
  • Selenium Remote Control
  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

Selenium is open-source and free software and thus has strong community support. You need not be an expert in multiple programming languages to automate the testing, as with Selenium, it supports multiple languages like Python, Java, Ruby, PHP, etc. The selenium tool suite is a combination of multiple software tools, and the entire tools have a different approach to support automation testing. 

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Difference between RPA and Selenium

Life Cycle

Let us discuss the life cycle of RPA and Selenium tools in detail below.

  1. Life Cycle of RPA:

The life cycle of RPA consists of the following steps, namely

  • Analysis
  • Development of Bot
  • Testing
  • Deployment and Maintenance

      B. Life Cycle of Selenium:

The life cycle of Selenium consists of the following steps, namely

  • Test plan
  • Generation of basic test case
  • Enhancement of test case
  • Execution and Debugging of test case
  • Test result analysis and defect reporting

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  • Selenium requires fundamental knowledge in JAVA
  • Minimum knowledge of coding is required for RPA

Automation Level

  • RPA will help to maintain a large amount of data. It will simplify the process. It is good in the clerical process.
  • Selenium will not support the clerical process. It will work in front-end applications.

Components Used

a. Selenium components are as follows

  • WebDriver
  • Selenium Grid
  • Selenium Remote Control
  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
  • RPA uses bots that are powerful in imitating certain human activities

b. RPA uses bots that are powerful in imitating certain human activities


  • Most businesses cannot afford RPA due to the high cost that is involved in developing and applying; hence it is popular only among the big investors and hence not a part of the general gadgets of a company.
  • While Selenium itself is free, to use it effectively costs money. On top of the costs involved in creating working Selenium scripts, you need infrastructure, support software, sysadmin time, and cross-browser test tools.

Use Case

  • RPA Use cases with process repeatability, rules-based decisions, duplicate data entry, common data structure, and high-frequency activities should be first on the list of processes to consider for automation.
  • Selenium is a universal use case. It doesn’t overshadow all of the other test automation tools, especially if you have the budget for them.


  • RPA is a combined form of automation and artificial intelligence. It is platform-independent. Some human actions like logging into the application, copy-paste the date, moving the folders or files, form filling, extraction of data from the documents are done by RPA bots.
  • Selenium is a free open source automation testing tool used to test web applications in different platforms and browsers. It is the top-level technology for web application testing. Selenium components are mainly classified into four divisions. 

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Features of RPA

  • RPA bots help to manage and perform a multitude of human actions such as moving files and folders, filling forms, copy and pasting data, to name a few.
  • With the aim of empowering businesses, RPA primarily creates software bots that could work easily with the system.
  • It os highly reliant on workflow automation and screen scraping.
  • RPA is nothing but a blend of automation and Artificial Intelligence.
  • RPA will be a better option for repetitive tasks.
  • It is used in different business processes such as calculations, operation activities, and the extraction of data.
  • RPA will reduce the maximum number of errors.
  • While using RPA, the risk factor is reduced, and the data is highly protected.

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Features of Selenium

Free Open-source tool

Being a free service that supports a large number of testing functions, selenium is more popular than ever. Not being charged for the test functions is a key feature that propels selenium.

Language Support

Though Selenium comes with its own scripts, is not limited by language and gives the testers flexibility of using Groovy, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java etc. This is one of the main reasons for the rising popularity among users.

Huge Browser Support

With the backing of some of the largest browsers selenium is soon to be more renowned and take its own permanent space in the native part of a browser.

Add on and Usability

The access and support from various browsers mean that selenium is sometimes blamed as not fully functional as it depends on third-party frameworks for the add-on. This is a subject of debate as it also gives the flexibility of going by the style and approach of the programmer.

Uses a Rich Language for Tests

To test web applications, Selenium uses DSL in order. This is an easy programming language to learn and includes more than 200 commands.

Reduce Test Execution Time

Selenium does support parallel test execution, which ultimately minimizes the time taken in executing parallel tests.

A Versatile Language

Once you are done preparing the test cases, they can be executed on any operating system like Linux, Macintosh, etc.

Lesser Resources Required

When compared to its competitors like UFT and RFT, Selenium requires lesser resources.

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In this blog, we have discussed RPA, Selenium, the Difference between RPA and Selenium, Features of RPA, Features of Selenium. RPA is a powerful automation solution that offers a variety of opportunities to improve quality, increase control, add flexibility, and unlocks a wide scope of automation possibilities. Selenium is a cost-effective, and flexible tool developer can use in the automation testing of their web applications. The most intriguing feature of this software is the ability to test applications across various web browsers. Finally, we can say RPA & Selenium are both very powerful. Hope you found this article is very useful. 

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Research Analyst
As a content writer at HKR trainings, I deliver content on various technologies. I hold my graduation degree in Information technology. I am passionate about helping people understand technology-related content through my easily digestible content. My writings include Data Science, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Python, Salesforce, Servicenow and etc.