PostgreSQL vs MySQL

When running a successful project, the selection of a database management system is always an afterthought, particularly on the Web. Many other methodologies include an object-relational mapping (ORM) method, that conceals the discrepancies among systems and tends to make them all similarly slow. Using the default option is usually a bad idea, but it really is important to think about. Don't be swayed by similarity and convenience – a good developer should always make effective choices among various options, ones advantages and drawbacks.

In this blog post we are going to cover the important concepts related to postgresql, mySQl and the key differences between them.

What is My SQL?

MYSQL is a well-known and extensively used database management system. The name is derived from the name of a girl named My, who is the daughter of co-founder Michael Widenius. MYSQL's source code is freely available under the GNU GPL, and the project is owned and managed by Oracle Corporation. It is an RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) that works primarily on the relational database model. It simplifies database administration in order to perform flexible operations very easily.

What is postgresql?

Postgre is a database management system that is object-relational in nature (ORDBMS). It was created at the University of California's Department of Computer Science. Postgres is an Enterprise-class relational database system that pioneered many concepts. It is simple to set up and install. It supports SQL and NoSQL databases. It has a wonderful community that is eager to assist you if you have any problems while using it.

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History of MYSQL:

The history of mysql is as follows:

  • MySQL was created by a Swedish company called MySQL AB in 1995.
  • Sun acquired MySQL AB for $1 billion in 2008.
  • Oracle bought Sun in 2010 and thus acquired. MySQL In 2012.
  • MySQL was forked into MariaDB by founder Michael Widenius under the company Monty Program Ab .
  • MariaDB replaces MySQL for most distributions in the year 2013.
  • Monty Program Ab merged with SkySQL- 2013 SkySQL renamed MySQL.
  • SkySQL Ab was renamed MariaDB Corporation in 2014.

History of Postgresql:

The history of postgresql are as follows:

  • INGRES was created in 1977.
  • Postgres- 1986 was created by Michael Stonebraker and his colleagues.
  • Support for real ACID and PL/pgSQL was added in 1990.
  • In -1995, Postgres95 was released.
  • Postgres95 was re-released as PostgreSQL 6.0 in 1996.
  • 1998-2001: MVCC, GUC, Join Syntax Controls, and Procedural Language Loader were added.
  • Versions 7.2 to 8.2: Added Schema support and Nonblocking.
  • 2002-2006: VACUUM, ROLES, and dblink.
  • In 2009, PostgreSQL 8.4 was released.
  • In 2010, PostgreSQL 9.0 was released.
  • PgUS (United States PostgreSQL Association) welcomed NYC PUG (New York City PostgreSQL User Group) in 2013.
  • 2014 PGconf organization.

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Why use MYSQL?

The below are some of the reasons to use mysql. They are:

  • Features such as Master-Slave Replication and Scale-Out are supported.
  • Offload Reporting, Geographic Data Distribution, and other features are supported.
  • When used for read-only applications, the MyISAM storage engine has very low overhead.
  • Memory storage engine encourages commonly used tables.
  • For frequently used statements, use the Query Cache.
  • MySQL can be easily learned and troubleshooted using various resources such as blogs and whitepapers.

Why use Postgresql?

Below are the reasons to use Postgresql. They are:

  • Provides useful features such as table partitioning, point-in-time recovery, transactional DDL, and so on.
  • Ability to use third-party Key Stores in a full PKI infrastructure.
  •  Developers can modify open source code because it is licensed under BSD without contributing back enhancements.
  • Independent Software Vendors can redistribute it without fear of being "infected" by an open source license.
  • Object level privileges can be assigned to users and roles.
  • AES, 3DES, and other data encryption algorithms are supported.

Features of MYSQL:

The following are the features of mysql. They are:

  • MySQL is a DBMS system that is driven by the community.
  • Compatible with all major platforms and languages, as well as middleware.
  • It allows for multi-version concurrency control.
  • Conforms to the ANSI SQL standard.
  • SSL support for log-based and trigger-based replication.
  • Object-oriented and compliant with ANSI-SQL2008.
  • Build with multiple layers and independent modules.
  • Using Kernel Threads, it is fully multi-threaded.
  • Servers are available in both embedded DB and client server models.
  • Provides built-in tools for query and space analysis.
  • This can manage any amount of data, up to and including 50 million rows.
  • MySQL runs on a wide range of UNIX platforms, as well as non-UNIX platforms such as Windows and OS/2.

Features of postgresql:

The following are the features of postgresql. They are:

  • A vibrant community that is rapidly expanding.
  • The most widely used alternative to Oracle, DB2, and SQL Server.
  • It is compatible with all major operating systems.
  • MVCC can handle a large number of concurrent users.
  • Indexing is extensive for high-performance reporting.
  • Modern applications encourage (XML and JSON).
  • Enable ANSI SQL for portable skills/code.
  • Foreign keys allow for more efficient data storage.
  • Views and table joins allow for more flexible data retrieval.
  • Triggers/Stored Procedures are used to automate complex programs and transactions.
  • Data replication for backup plan and interpret adaptability.

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Difference between MYSQL and Postgresql:

The key difference between mysql and postgresql. They are:

Opensource:

  • The MySQL project has released its source code under the GNU General Public License.
  • PostgreSQL is distributed under the PostgreSQL license, which is a free and open source license. This is comparable to the BSD and MIT licenses.

ACID Compliance:

  • MySQL is only ACID compliant when used with the InnoDB and NDB Cluster Storage engines.
  • PostgreSQL complies with all ACID requirements.

SQL Complaint:

  • MySQL is SQL-compliant to a limited extent. It does not, for example, support check constraints. 
  • PostgreSQL is SQL-compliant to a large extent.

Community Support:

  • Mysql has a large contributor community that focuses primarily on maintaining existing features, with new features appearing on occasion. 
  • The active community is constantly improving its existing features, while the innovative community strives to keep it as the most advanced database. New cutting-edge features and security enhancements are released on a regular basis.

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Performance:

  • MYsql is primarily used for web-based projects that require a database for simple data transactions. 
  • Postgresql is commonly used in large systems where read and write speeds are critical.

Best suited for:

  • When only read speeds are required, MySQL performs well in OLAP and OLTP systems. 
  • When it comes to complex queries, PostgreSQL excels.

Support for JSON:

  • MySQL supports the JSON data type but not any other NoSQL feature. 
  • JSON and other NoSQL features, such as native XML support, are supported by postgresql. It also allows for the indexing of JSON data for quicker access.

Supports materialized views:

  • Temporary tables are supported, but materialized views are not available for mysql.
  • Materialized views and temporary tables are supported by postgresql

Ecosystem:

  • MySQL has a vibrant ecosystem that includes variants such as MariaDB, Percona, Galera, and others. 
  • Postgres has historically had few high-end options. However, this is changing with the addition of new features in the most recent version.

Default Values:

  • Mysql default values can be overwritten at the session and statement levels; however, the default values can only be changed at the system level for postgresql.

B-tree Indexes:

  • When necessary, two or more B-tree indexes can be used for mysql. Dynamically converted predicates are B-tree indexes that are merged at runtime to evaluate for the postgresql.

Disadvantages of postgresql and mysql:

Disadvantages of mysql:

The following are the disadvantages of mysql are:

  • System catalog transactions are not ACID compliant.
  • A server crash can occasionally corrupt the system catalog.
  • There is no pluggable authentication module, which prevents centrally managed accounts.
  • Because there is no support for roles, it is difficult to maintain privileges for a large number of users.
  • Caching is not possible for stored procedures.
  • Tables used for the procedure or trigger are always locked before they are used.

Disadvantages of postgresql:

The disadvantages of postgresql are:

  • Current external solutions necessitate a steep learning curve.
  • There is no upgrade option for major releases.
  • It is necessary to export or replicate the data to the new version.
  • During the upgrade process, double storage is required.
  • Indexes cannot be used to return query results directly.
  • The execution plans for queries are not cached.
  • Bulk loading operations may cause the CPU to become overburdened.
  • Support from Independent Software Vendors is limited.

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Conclusion:

After conflating the two, we can conclude that MySQL has done a really good job of enhancing itself in order to remain relevant, whereas PostgreSQL does not require any licensing. Table inheritance, rules systems, custom data types, and database events are also available. As a result, it clearly outperforms MySQL.

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Gayathri
Gayathri
Research Analyst
As a senior Technical Content Writer for HKR Trainings, Gayathri has a good comprehension of the present technical innovations, which incorporates perspectives like Business Intelligence and Analytics. She conveys advanced technical ideas precisely and vividly, as conceivable to the target group, guaranteeing that the content is available to clients. She writes qualitative content in the field of Data Warehousing & ETL, Big Data Analytics, and ERP Tools. Connect me on LinkedIn.