.Net Tutorial

Are you ready to start your IT profession journey as a .NET developer? I think you are at the right place to learn and explore your technical skills in the .NET framework. In this .NET tutorial, we are going to explain the definitions, why we need to learn .NET, its features, and its advantages. This tutorial will be useful for those who want to begin their IT career as .NET developers as well as experienced professionals. As per recent research, .NET has been growing enormously and emerging as one of the top Framework tools. One more thing to be noted here, it’s free to use and cross-platform tool. So what you are waiting for? Let’s begin our journey:

What do you know about the .NET Framework?

.NET Framework is a software framework mainly used for developing window-based and web-based applications within the Microsoft platforms. This .NET framework is a programming independent and language tool developed by leading software company MICROSOFT Corporations. This tool supports multiple programming languages such as C#, Visual basic scripts, J scripts, C++ codes, and many more. .NET framework also allows user to run their codes on multiple platforms such as LINUX, Mac OS, Windows XP, and UNIX. This programming tool also contains various libraries that help the user in the faster application development, free, and easy to use. .NET offers a fundamental shift in Microsoft strategy and it moves application of development from client-centric to server-centric.

Why do we need to learn the .NET framework?

Here we are going to explain a few points about why we need to learn the .NET framework:

  1. This .NET framework enables developers to develop software applications for various devices and platforms like windows applications, web applications, windows services, and web services.
  2. .NET tools used for developing software applications, run-time environments for software applications to execute, server infrastructure, value-added intelligent software which helps users to do less coding and work efficiently.
  3. Most consumers will never notice that the .NET is running on their pocket Personal computers, smartphones, or Desktop computers. But they appreciate the benefits like easy-to-use, and the ability to connect to other software systems that the .NET framework helps bring to computers.
  4. Helps in building compelling applications faster.
  5. Integrate with other tools and technologies to build the right solution with less work.

.NET architecture:

.NET architecture gives an idea about how this framework tool runs, its components, and functions. Let me explain them.

IMAGE

This Microsoft .Net architecture supports the programming models for .NET environments. This type of .net platform offers managed environment executions, simplified software developments, deployments, and executions of codes using a wide variety of software programming languages.

.Net Framework consists of two major key parts they are:

This framework consists of the class library which is comprehensive, object-oriented and consists of reusable methods used for developing applications. The framework class library included are ADO.NET, Windows Forms, and ASP.NET.

The Common language runtime or CLR is the core runtime component used for executing various applications in the .NET framework. We can also consider this type of CLR as a safe area or sandbox to run your codes. These codes are usually run in the common language runtime (CLR) are also known as managed code. This CLR is fully protected from the outside Microsoft environment. The main advantage of using this CLR is providing security, high-level performance, deployment facilities, and memory management or Garbage collections.

Advantages of the .NET framework:

Below are the important advantages of the .NET framework:

  1. This .net framework drastically reduces the amount of code required to build any larger software applications.
  2. The .NET framework is complemented by a rich toolbox and designed in the Visual Studio integrated development environment.
  3. This type of .NET framework offers WYSIWYG editing, drag-and-drop server controls, and automatic deployments.
  4. Being a software independent tool, this allows user to choose the languages applies to your applications and partition the software applications across many languages.
  5. .NET makes for easy deployments. Here no need to register components because this tool consists of built-in configuration information.

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Overview of the .NET framework:

The.NET framework environment setup offers various services like networking, security, memory management, and safe code usage. This type of .NET framework supports almost 60 programming languages they are C#, F#, JSCRIPT, VB.NET, COBOL, PERL, PYTHON, and many more. The following are the important components of the .NET framework;

  1. Common language runtime or CLR.
  2. Core languages included such as WinForms, ADO.NET, and ASP.NET.
  3. Framework class library or FCL
  4. Other modules support they are WCF, LINQ, Entity framework, Task parallel library, and Card Space.

Now it’s time to learn these components briefly;

1. Common Language Runtime or CLR:

This is a type of program execution engine used to store and execute the programs. CLR also converts the program codes into respective native codes. The CLR also acts as an interface between the operating system and frameworks. The main functions of CLR are exception handling, memory management, garbage collections, provides security, portability, type-safety, and interoperability. The important components of CLR are as follows:

  1. Thread support
  2. COM Marshaler
  3. Type checker
  4. Exception manager
  5. Security Engine
  6. Debug Engine.
  7. IL to native compilers
  8. Code managers
  9. Class loader.
2. FCL or Framework Class Library:

This is known as a standard library which is a collection of thousands of classes. FCL is also used to build applications. The base class library is the core component of FCL and offers major functionalities.

3. WinForms:

This is a Windows form and considered as a smart client technology in the .NET framework. WinForms is a set of managed libraries used to simplify common application tasks like reading and writing file systems.

4. ASP.NET:

ASP.NET is a popular web framework mainly designed and developed by Microsoft Corporations. ASP.NET is used to develop websites, web services, and web application developments. It also offers integration for programs like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

5. ADO.NET:

ADO.NET is acting as a core module of the .NET framework. This type of framework is used to establish a connection between different applications and data sources. Data sources that may be included are SQL servers and XML. ADO.NET consists of various classes that are used for connection, data retrieval, data insertion, and data delete purposes.

6. WPF (Windows Presentation Foundation):

Windows presentation foundation or WPF is a graphical system offered by Microsoft. This is used for rendering interfaces in windows-based applications known as Avalon. Now a day WPF uses DirectX.

7. WCF or Windows communication Foundation:

This is the framework used to build service-oriented software applications. With the help of WCF, users can send asynchronous messages as data from one service to another.

8. Workflow foundation or WF:

Windows workflow foundation or WF is a type of Microsoft application mainly used to build an application programming interface (API), workflow in-process engine, and a rehostable web design to implement long-running processes.

9. LINQ or Language Integrated Query:

This is a query language and used to make the data query sources with C# or VB programming languages.

10. Entity Framework:

Entity Framework is an ORM based open sources used to work with a database. This eliminates a lot of .NET developers’ efforts to handle the Query database.

11. Parallel LINQ:

Parallel LINQ offers parallel implementation to data objects and also combines simplicity. And also the readability of LINQ and provides parallel programming.

Revolution of .Net:

.Net can also be pronounced as a “C-sharp”. This is an object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft Corporations that run on a .net environment setup. Anders Hejlsberg is a founder of the .NET language.

The below versions will give you complete detail about .NET history:

.Net version 1.0(2002) : this version provided only basic features.

.Net version 2.0(2005): offers generic methods, partial types, anonymous methods, static classes, and null methods.

.Net version 3.0 (2007): Var, Linq, Auto-implemented features, anonymous, and extension methods.

.Net version 4.0 (2010): offers dynamic binding, and optional arguments.

.Net version 5.0 (2012): this version provides asynchronous methods, and caller attribute information.

.Net version 6.0 (2015): this version offers auto-property initializer, null operators, exception handling, and user static members. 

.Net first program example:

Here we have taken “hello world” example in four possible ways:

  1. Simple example
  2. Using system
  3. Using public modifiers
  4. Using Namespace

Let me explain them one by one;

  1. C# simple example:
Class program1

   {

   Static void main (string [] args)

    {

        System.console.writeline (“HELLO WORLD!”);

    }

}

Output: HELLO WORLD!

Brief explanation:

Class: Class is a keyword used to define the class.

Program: Program is the class name. This is available in the form of blueprints or templates. It consists of data members and methods.

Static: This is a keyword and explains no object is required to access any static members. Static members save memory.

Void: Void is the return type of the given method. This void type doesn’t return any data value.

Main: Main is the method name and this is an entry point for C# programs.

String [] args: This is used for command-line arguments used in C# programs. With the help of String [] args we can pass the data values.

System.Console.WriteLine (“Hello World!”): System is the namespace, the console is the class definition, and Writeline () is the static methods used to write the text.

     2. C# example: Using System

Using system;

  Class Program

   {

   Static Void Main (string [] args)

          {

                 Console.WriteLine (“Hello World!”);

         }

}
  1. C# Example: Using Public Modifier
 Using System;

Public Class Program

  {

  Public static void Main (String [] args)

   {

       Console.WriteLine (“Hello World!”);

  }

}

Output:

Hello World!

C# Example: Using Namespace

Using System;

Namespace ConsoleApplication

  {

    Public class program

    {

        Public Static void Main (string [] args)

          {

        Console.WriteLine (“Hello World”);

         }

    }

}

Output: Hello world

C# Variables:

A variable in C# specifies the name of the memory location. This type of variable is used to store the data. These variables can be changed and reusable many times.

This is the way to represent the memory location via symbols. So it makes it easier to identify the .net memory location.

The below column explains the basic C# variables with examples:

1. Decimal variable types: for example, Decimals.

2. Boolean variable types: for example, “TRUE” or “FALSE” values.

3. Integer variable types: for example, INT, CHAR, SHORT, LONG, and BYTE.

4. Floating point variables: for example, FLOAT and DOUBLE values.

Let’s see the Syntax to declare the .net variables;

TYPE VARIABLE_LIST;

Below are the basic examples;

INT I, J

DOUBLE D;

FLOAT F;

CHAR CH;

Rules to be remembered while declaring .NET variables:

  1. A variable can consist of alphabets, Underscore, and Digits.
  2. A variable should start with alphabets and underscore. It can’t start with any digit type.
  3. In .NET no white space is allowed while declaring variables.
  4. A variable name should not be of reserved word or any keywords. For example Char, or Float, etc.

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.Net Data types:

A data type specifies the type of data to be used in .net. The data can be stored in char, int, or Boolean form.

The following flow diagram will illustrate the .net data types:

IMAGE

Three types of data types can be used in C#:

Types used in .net and its variable types:

  1. Value data types: short, int, char, float and double etc.
  2. Reference data types: string, class, interface, and object data types.
  3. Pointer data types: pointer or reference data values. 

Value data types:

The value data types can be either integer-based or Floating-point based. As we know that .net supports both signed and unsigned literal values.

There are two types of data values available in C# Language:

  1. Predefined data types: Integers, Boolean, and Float values come under this section.
  2. User-defined data types: Structures and enumerators come under this User-defined data types section.

Reference data types:

The reference data types never contain the actual data that is stored in a variable, but they hold a reference to the data variables. If you make any changes to any one of the variables, these changes automatically reflect in the other variable.

Here also you can see two types of reference data types;

  1. Predefined types: Examples are Objects and strings.
  2. User-defined types: Examples are classes and interface.

Pointer data types:

A pointer is also a type of data type that indicates an address of a data value. This is also known as a Locator or indicator. The below diagram is an example for the pointer;

IMAGE

Symbols are used in Pointer:

& (ampersand sign): this is an address operator used to determine the variable address.

*(Asterisk sign): this is an indirection operator used to access the value of an address.

Ways to declare a pointer:

Int * a; // points to an integer values.

Char * c; // points to character values.

C# Operators:

Operators in .net are used to perform important operations; here you can see many operators in C#. Let me name them;

  1. Arithmetic operators
  2. Relational operators
  3. Logical operators
  4. Bitwise operators
  5. Assignment operators
  6. Unary operators
  7. Ternary operators
  8. Misc operators

The below diagram will illustrate the C# operators;

C# Operators

C# Operators:

A keyword in C# is used as a reserved word. These types of reserved words cannot be used as a variable name or constant name etc.

The lists of C# operators are given below:

IMAGE

C# control statements:

In this section, I am going to explain important Control statements used in C#;

1. C# if-else statements:

This type of statement is used to test the conditions. There are important conditional statements you can see;

  1. If statements
  2. If-else statement
  3. Nested if statements
  4. If-else-if ladder statements

2. C# IF statement:

This type of IF statement is used to test the conditions. If the condition is true, then the only statement will be executed.

The syntax is as follows:

If (condition)

{

   //enter the code to be executed

}

IMAGE

Programming example:

Using system;

Public class example1

 {

Public Static void main (String [] args)

        {

               Int num = 20;  //integer declaration

                If (num % 2 == 0) //if-statement condition

                  {

                       Console.WriteLine (“   execute if it’s an even number”);

                   }

       }

}

Output:

Executes if it’s an even number.

The condition executes the statement as I have given number 20, 20 % 2 == 0. So the condition is true.

3. C# if-else statements:

The programming example is as follows:

Using system;

Public class IFExample

  {

   Public static void main (string [] args)

         {

               Int num = 13;

              If (num % 2 == 0)

               {

                   Console.writeline (“It is an even number”);

               }

            Else

              {

                   Console.writeline (“it is an odd number”);

              

               }

            }

   }

Output:

It is an odd number

Because 13 % 2 == 1, so 1 is an odd number.

4. C# If-else-if ladder statement:

This type of conditional statement executes one condition from multiple statements.

Syntax:

If (condition1)

  {

// code will be executed if the condition statement1 is true

 }

Else if (condition 2)

{

  //code will be executed if the condition statement2 is true

}

Else if (Condition 3)

 {

  //code will be executed if the condition statement 3 is true

}

………………..

Else

{

//code will be executed if the condition statement is false

}

The below diagram will illustrate this;

IMAGE

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5. C#: Switch statements

The switch C# statements are used to execute the statements from multiple conditions. The syntax is as follows:

Syntax:

Switch (expression)

{

   Case value1:  //executes the first statement

//code to be executed;

Break;

  Case value2:   //executes the second statement

   // code to be executed;

Break;

   Case value3: // executes the third statement

   //code to be executed;

   Break;

  …………………

  Default:

  //code will be executed if the cases will not match the given conditions

  Break;

}

The following diagram will illustrate this;

IMAGE

6. C# Functions:

C# is a set of code used to execute the statements which have a signature. A function in C# consists of the main components:

  1. Function name: Function name is a unique code mainly used to make any function calls.
  2. Return type: it is used to define the type of data used to return data values.
  3. Body: this is a block that consists of executable statements.
  4. Access specifier: This is used to specify the accessibility of an application.
  5. Parameters: Parameters are nothing but a list of arguments used to pass data values to the function call.

7. C# function syntax:

Function name ()

 {

   // function body (contains executable statements)

  // returns the statements

}

Here user can perform functions in three ways:

  1. C# by value
  2. C# by reference
  3. C# out parameters.

C# Arrays:

Like any other programming languages, Arrays in .net represents the set of data values. This array consists of a similar group of data stored in contiguous memory locations. In .Net or C# array is a base type object called System. Array. In general arrays should starts from 0 indexes and in that index we can store the data values.

IMAGE

Advantages of using C# Array:
  1. Uses fewer codes or code optimization is possible.
  2. Offers Random access.
  3. with the help of Arrays, easy to traverse data values.
  4. it’s easy for data manipulation
  5. Easy to perform sort data.

Here I would like to mention a few disadvantages of using C# arrays;

  1. Important point to be noted, here each data value should be of fixed size.
Types of C# arrays:

There are 3 types’ of arrays available in C# programming language:

  1. Single dimensional arrays
  2. Multidimensional array
  3. Jagged Array.

C# Objects and Class:

As we know that C# is an object-oriented programming language and programs in C# are designed using objects and classes. We can also call an object is an entity that has a state and behavior. The state represents the data and behavior represents the functionality. The object is a runtime entity and objects are created at runtime environment. The object is also an instance of a class name, all the class members can be accessed by using objects.

Example to create an object in C# using the new keyword:

College C1 = new College_name (); // here an object type is a college name.

In the above example, college is the type name and C1 is the reference variable which refers to the instance of College class. This new keyword allocates the memory at runtime environment.

C# Class:

In C#, the class is nothing but a group of similar objects. Objects are created using class templates. The Class can have fields, constructors, methods, functions, etc.

For example:

Public class student

  {

Int id; // data member id or field

String name; //name of the field or data member

 }

C# String:

C# string is an object of the class System. A string that represents the sequence of characters. With the help of a string, we can perform many operations such as Concatenations, replacements, trim, search, replacement, etc.

For example:

Using system;

Public class StringExample1

  {

Public static void main (string [] args)

  {

     String s2 = “Hai”;

     Char [] ch = { ‘.’, ‘n’, ‘e’, ‘t’};

     String s3 = new string (ch);

       Console.writeLine (s2);

       Console.WriteLine (s3);

  }

}

Output:

Hai

.net

C# string methods:

The below column gives an idea about String methods and uses:

 Method name                                         Description

Clone (): this method is used to return reference to the string instances.

Comprae (string, string) : this method is used to compare any two string objects.

compareOrdinal (string, string) : this method is used to compare any two numeric strings.

CompareTo (string): this method is used to compare instances with string objects.

Concat (string, string) : it is used to concatenate any two string instances.

Contains (string): it is used to return any values which are indicating a substring occurs within a string.

Copy (string): this method is used to create new string instances with the same value.

EndsWith (string): this method is used to check that the end of the string instances that matches the specified string. 

Equals (string, string): this method is used to determine whether two specified strings have the same value.

Format (string, object): this method is used to replace one or more objects in a specified string.

GetEnumerator () : this method is used to retrieve the objects through the characters in the string instances.

GetHashCode (): this method returns the hash code for the specified string objects.

Gettype(): this method is used to get the current string instance.

Gettypecode() : it is used to return the type code for string class.

Indexof (string): this method is used to report the zero based index of the first occurrence in the string instance.

Intern (string): this method retrieves the system’s reference to the string instance. 

Drawbacks of .NET:

.Net offers many advantages over applications, but you can find a few drawbacks of using this technology. I would like to mention a few of them;

  1. Security: .net better than any other frameworks (DNA, ActiveX, and DCOM, etc.). But still used on Windows-based technologies.
  2. Immaturity: Version 1.0 issues, likely to change in future, and language changes for .net developers.
  3. Application migration to .net costly.
  4. Not enough real-world use yet to evaluate.
  5. Future direction determined by Microsoft corporations.

Conclusion : 

Learning this .net tutorial will help you to get in-depth knowledge of this technology. In this tutorial, we have explained the overview, advantages, methods, classes, features, and datatypes. This tutorial will help a few of you who want to begin your professional career as a .Net developer. If you are looking for hands-on experience in this technology, you can join our .Net online course offered by HKR institutes. 

 

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Kavya Gowda
Kavya Gowda
Research Analyst
Kavya works for HKR Trainings institute as a technical writer with diverse experience in many kinds of technology-related content development. She holds a graduate education in the Computer science and Engineering stream. She has cultivated strong technical skills from reading tech blogs and also doing a lot of research related to content. She manages to write great content in many fields like Programming & Frameworks, Enterprise Integration, Web Development, SAP, and Business Process Management (BPM). Connect her on LinkedIn and Twitter.