Maven Tutorial

Project Management has become a necessity. The IT world has witnessed the rising of many project management tools in recent years. Every tool comes with its own set of goals and responsibilities. Maven is a project management tool that is used to automate the build components of Java projects. It can also cater to the projects that are written on Ruby, Scala, etc. Apache Maven is a tool hosted by the Apache foundation. The core idea behind the motivation to develop a tool for build processes was to automate the manual processes that would take a lot of time for the developers to complete the software project. Maven uses a declarative approach rather than the task-based approach to take away the greater part of the effort that goes into software development. Here is a brief Maven tutorial that will help you in understanding the core concepts and competencies of Maven. In this Maven tutorial, we will learn about the core concepts of Maven, its architecture, its primary features, its benefits, and much more.

What is a Build Tool?

In Java, a "Build tool" is a wide umbrella term that alludes to whatever is expected to get a bit of programming set up, however it isn't required after that. Diverse programming networks have an abundance of various apparatuses: some utilization stalwarts like make, some utilization free assortments of .sh contents, some utilization XML-based devices like Maven or Ant, JSON-based devices like Grunt, or code-based devices like Gulp, Grunt or SBT.

Build tools are the apparatus programs that computerize the production of executable applications from source code. The building joins gathering, connecting, and bundling the code into a usable or executable structure. In little tasks, engineers will regularly physically summon the fabricating procedure. This isn't useful for bigger ventures, where it is exceptionally difficult to monitor what should be worked, in what grouping, and what conditions there are in the structure procedure. Utilizing a computerization device permits the manufacturing procedure to be progressively reliable.

The programming world develops devices to oversee and compose your assembles, and are significant in situations where there are numerous undertakings, particularly on the off chance that they are between associated. They serve to ensure that where different individuals are taking a shot at different tasks, they don't break anything. Also, to ensure that when you roll out your improvements, they don't break anything either.

Present-day build tools can go further in empowering work process handling by acquiring the source code developed by the developer. The task of the build tool os to send executables of the code that need to be tested, and in any event, improving the complex forms of source code utilization that is circulated by building the developed codes, which includes running the assemble procedure in an intelligible, synchronized way over a few machines.

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What is Maven?

Maven is a tool that aids in project management. It is an advanced level cognizance device that gives software developers a total form of lifecycle system. Advancement group can mechanize the task's fabricate foundation in the blink of an eye as Maven utilizes a standard index design and a default manufacturing lifecycle. In the event of various improvement groups conditions, Maven can set-up the best approach to fill in according to guidelines in a brief timeframe. As the majority of the undertaking arrangements are straightforward and reusable, Maven makes the life of a developer simple while making reports, checks, assemblies, and testing automation arrangements.

Apache Maven is a foundation of Java improvement and the most utilized form of build tool for Java. Maven's smoothed out, XML-based arrangement model empowers engineers to quickly depict or get a handle on the blueprints of any Java-based undertaking, which makes the beginning and sharing of new projects in a snap. The Maven environment additionally underpins test-driven turn of events, long haul venture support, and its definitive design and a wide scope of modules make it a mainstream alternative for CI/CD. This article is a speedy prologue to Maven, including the Maven POM and registry structure, and orders for building your first Maven venture.

For the software project developers, a Maven is a great tool that helps to disentangle and normalize the project management phase. It handles gathering, dissemination, documentation, the group coordinated effort, and different assignments consistently. Maven architecture expands reusability and deals with the vast majority of the manufacture related assignments.

The essential objective for Maven is to aid the software developer in the accompanying tasks:

  • A far-reaching model for ventures, which is reusable, viable, and simpler to understand.
  • Plugins or devices that cooperate with this explanatory model.

Maven’s project structure and substance are pronounced in an XML record, pom.xml, alluded to as Project Object Model (POM), which is the major unit of the whole Maven framework.

Maven Architecture

Maven ArchitectureMaven Build Lifecycles

Each Maven build follows a predefined lifecycle. A developer can execute a few form lifecycle objectives, including the ones to incorporate the venture's code, make a bundle, and introduce the chronicle record in the nearby dependency repository that is available.

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Lifecycle Phases of Maven

The following is a list of the most important lifecycle phases in a Maven environment:

  • validate –  ensure the accuracy of the java software 
  • compile – gives you the ability to compile and convert the available source code to the required binary artifacts
  • test – run the commands for unit tests
  • package – helps you to bundle the code that has been compiled code to a proper archive file
  • integration-test – runs all the extra tests, that need the packaging
  • verify – ensure the validity of the package
  • install – helps to install a package file in a repository
  • deploy –  helps the developer to successfully deploy the package file that has been created to a repository or a Maven remote server

The lifecycle phases in Maven (in addition to the next lifecycle stages not appeared here) are executed consecutively to finish the default lifecycle. The fact that a lifecycle phase is over, implies that when the default lifecycle is being used, Maven will initially approve the project, at that point it will attempt to accumulate the sources, run those against the tests, bundle the pairs (for example container), run mix tests against that bundle, check the combination tests, introduce the assured bundle to the local repository and lastly deploy the introduced bundle to a remote repository for security.

Maven Plugin Goals

A Build Phase is Made Up of several Plugin Goals. Be that as it may, even though a form stage is liable for a particular advance in the assemble lifecycle, the way where it does those duties may change. Furthermore, this is finished by announcing the module objectives bound to those construct stages.

A module objective speaks to a particular undertaking (better than a form stage) which adds to the structure and overseeing of a venture. It might undoubtedly at least zero form stages. An objective not bound to any form stage could be executed outside of the assemble lifecycle by direct conjuring. The command for execution relies upon the request wherein the goal(s) and the fabricate phase(s) are conjured.

To successfully configure the Maven stage you have to utilize the Project Object Model, which is put away in a pom.xml-record. POM incorporates all the design settings identified with Maven. Modules can be designed and altered in the tag of a pom.xml document. What's more, the engineer can utilize any module absent a lot of detail of each module. At the point when the client begins chipping away at Maven, it gives the default setting of the arrangement, so the client doesn't have to include each design in pom.xml.

Striking Features of Maven

  • Model-based forms − Maven can assemble any number of ventures into predefined yield types, for example, container, war, metadata.
  • Coherent webpage of undertaking data − Using similar metadata according to the construct procedure, the software developers can create a site and a PDF including total documentation.
  • Release the board and appropriation distribution − Without extra design, Maven will incorporate with your source control framework, for example, CVS, and deals with the arrival of a venture. 
  • Backward Compatibility − You can without much of a stretch port the various modules of an undertaking into Maven 3 from more seasoned renditions of Maven. It can bolster the more established forms of moreover. 
  • Automatic parent forming − No compelling reason to indicate the parent in the submodule for support.
  • Parallel manufactures − It dissects the task reliance diagram and empowers you to fabricate plan modules in equal. Utilizing this, you can accomplish the presentation upgrades of 20-half.
  • Better Error and Integrity Reporting − Maven improved blunder announcing, and it gives you a connection to the Maven wiki page where you will get a full portrayal of the mistake.

Maven- The Core Concepts

The Apache Maven tool is based on the idea of POM files (Project Object Model). A POM record is an XML portrayal of undertaking assets like source code, test code, conditions (outer JARs utilized), and so forth. The POM contains references to these assets. The POM record ought to be situated in the root index of the undertaking it has a place with.

Here is an outline representing the way Maven utilizes the POM file, and what the POM file fundamentally contains:

The Core Concepts

These concepts are explained briefly below to give you an overview and then in more detail in their sections later in this tutorial. All the concepts that are illustrated in the image above are discussed below.

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POM Files

At the point when you execute a Maven command, you give Maven a POM document to execute the orders on. Maven environment will at that point execute the order on the assets depicted in the POM.

Build Life Cycles, Phases and Goals

The assembling procedure in Maven is separated into building life cycles, stages, and objectives. A form life cycle comprises a succession of manufacturing stages, and each building stage comprises a grouping of objectives. At the point when you run Maven, you pass an order to Maven. This order is the name of a form life cycle, stage, or objective. On the off chance that an actual existence cycle is mentioned executed, all form stages in that life cycle are executed. If a form stage is mentioned executed, all form stages before it in the pre-characterized grouping of manufacture stages are executed as well.

Dependencies and Repositories

One of the primary objectives Maven executes is to check the conditions required by your undertaking. Conditions are outside JAR records (Java libraries) that your undertaking employments. If the conditions are not found in the neighborhood Maven archive, Maven downloads them from a focal Maven vault and places them in your nearby store. The nearby vault is only a registry on your PC's hard circle. You can determine where the neighborhood archive ought to be found on the off chance that you need to (I do). You can likewise indicate which remote vault to use for downloading conditions. This will be clarified in more detail later in this instructional exercise.

Build Plugins

In Maven the Build Plugins are utilized to embed additional objectives into a formative stage. If you have to play out a lot of activities for your undertaking which is not secured by the standard Maven manufacture stages and objectives, you can add a module to the POM record. Apache Maven has some standard modules you can utilize, and you can likewise execute your own in Java if you have to.

Build Profiles

The Build profiles are utilized on the off chance that you have to assemble your task in various manners. For example, you may need to manufacture your undertaking for your nearby PC, for improvement and test. What's more, you may need to construct it for arrangement on your creation condition. These two forms might be extraordinary. To empower various forms you can add distinctive form profiles to your POM records. When executing Maven you can advise which construct profile to utilize.

Working of Maven

In the same way as other extraordinary automation instruments, Maven takes on what was once an over-complicated endeavor and disentangles it to absorbable parts. Maven comprises of three segments:

  • The POM: The document that portrays a Maven undertaking and its conditions.
  • The registry: The normalized design for depicting a Maven venture in the POM.
  • Repositories: Where outsider programming is put away and found.

Installing Maven

By now we know that Maven is a Java venture, so before you introduce it you'll have to have the JDK introduced in your improvement condition.

When you have your Java advancement condition arrangement, you can introduce Maven in only a couple of steps:

1.Download the most recent Maven discharge (Maven 3.6.3 as of this composition).

2.Extract the apache.maven .compress record to an advantageous spot.

3.Place that record on your way. For instance, on a Unix or Linux framework: send out PATH=$PATH:/home/expert/.

You should now approach the mvn order. Type mvn - v to ensure you've effectively introduced Maven.

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Maven Repositories

The repositories of Maven are catalogs of bundled JAR records with extra meta information. The meta-information is POM records depicting the undertakings each bundled JAR document has a place with, including what outer conditions each bundled JAR has. It is this meta-information that empowers Maven to download conditions of your conditions recursively until the entire tree of conditions is download and placed into your local server.

The repositories in Maven are canvassed in more detail in the Maven Introduction to Repositories, yet here is a snappy outline.

In Maven the developers can get the following three types of repositories:

Maven Repositories

Maven programs scan these stores for conditions in the above grouping. First in the nearby vault, at that point in the focal store, and third in remote archives whenever determined in the POM.

Given below is a diagram that shows the three repository types along with their location in Maven architecture

location in Maven architecture

Local Repository

In Maven local repository is like a registry that gets created on the developer's PC. This store will contain all the conditions that Maven downloads. A similar Maven store is ordinarily utilized for a few unique undertakings. In this manner Maven just needs to download the conditions once, regardless of whether different activities rely upon them (for example Junit).

Your activities can likewise be manufactured and introduced in your nearby store, utilizing the mvn introduce order. That way your different activities can utilize the bundled JAR documents of your ventures as outside conditions by indicating them as outer conditions inside their Maven POM records. 

As a matter of course Maven puts your neighborhood store inside your client home registry on your nearby PC. Be that as it may, you can change the area of the nearby storehouse by setting the catalog inside your Maven settings document.

Central Repository

The central repository in Maven is a store given by the Maven people group. Of course, Maven glances in this central repository for any conditions required yet not found in your nearby archive. Maven at that point downloads these conditions into your neighborhood vault. You need no exceptional design to get to the local store. 

Remote Repository

In Maven the remote repository is an archive on a web server from which Maven can download conditions, much the same as the focal storehouse. A remote vault can be found anyplace on the web, or inside a nearby system.

The project managers and software developers frequently utilize the remote repository for facilitating projects' internal information to your association, which are shared by various activities. For example, a typical security task may be utilized over numerous inside ventures. This security undertaking ought not to be available to the outside world, and should consequently not be facilitated in people in general, focal Maven archive. Rather it tends to be facilitated in an inside remote vault. 

The dependencies that are found in a remote store are likewise downloaded and placed into your nearby vault by Maven.

Advantages of using Maven

Better dependency management -

  • With Maven, you don't need to stress over transitive conditions. On the off chance that your venture relies upon library A, you simply include an immediate reliance and let it stress over its conditions.
  • Maven ventures don't have to store outsider double libraries in source control, which diminishes undue weight on designer checkouts and fabricates.
  • With Maven, you can include another reliance rapidly. Current IDEs, for example, Eclipse permit you to do as such without physically altering a venture's pom.xml.
  • Maven can distinguish unused and transitive conditions.
  • Maven can make reports demonstrating all the conditions utilized on a task.
  • Maven can show a various leveled reliance tree that incorporates every transitive reliance.

All the more impressive forms- Maven's default modules and life cycle permit an undertaking to perform basic form activities without contacting a form design record. For instance, without adding anything to a task's pom.xml, you can

  • Clean created documents, for example, .class records from a venture.
  • Run JUnit tests for the task.
  • Integrate non-aggregated asset documents, (for example, pictures or .properties records) into a JAR ancient rarity.
  • Generate Javadoc for the task.
  • Analyze the conditions of the task.

Better troubleshooting - Maven archives permit an antique's source code to be distributed close by the curio's JAR. Incorporated Development Environments, for example, Maven permits designers to naturally download the source code, which lets debuggers drill into the source code and examine why the antiquity didn't act accurately.

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Better joint effort - Maven storehouses permit an antiquity's Javadoc to be distributed close by the ancient rarity's JAR. Coordinated Development Environments, for example, Eclipse permit engineers to naturally download the Javadoc and see how to utilize the relic.

More componentized assembles - Maven makes it simple to recognize when a venture has a reliance on code outside its source control organizers. Engineers and supervisors the same favor little, componentized constructs since they permit code changes to be immediately tried and coordinated.

Diminished duplication of tasks- Maven ventures can utilize a task object model (POM) progressive system to decrease the duplication that ordinarily exists in Ant ventures. For instance, as opposed to having each venture make an Ant build.xml that deals with all the subtleties of arranging Sonar properties, such an arrangement can happen in a Maven parent POM that kid ventures acquire from.

Progressively predictable task structure - All Maven ventures have a typical structure, which makes it more clear each undertaking.

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Maven Directory Structure

Maven is a general programming venture the executives, to get Maven clients acquainted with Maven activities, Maven characterizes a few shows or index designs.

Through that index, formats Maven is able to accomplish a uniform method to sort out projects and records that lie within it. This is an awesome methodology since you can take a shot at a few ventures and you generally will have a similar undertaking structure, so you will switch among tasks and you don't need to consume time to figure out how the venture is composed.

The main show over arrangement is Maven's envelope structure. With an unmistakable catalog format, each venture will look fundamentally the same as. Since the tasks look fundamentally the same as the manufacture will be additionally fundamentally the same as. The advantage is additionally, that different designers can without much of a stretch comprehend the construct too. 

People who originate from make or ANT, will quite surely understand how complex such forms can get. What's more, that it is so difficult to gain proficiency with the ideas of every single form framework. Maven was the primary incredible methodology in Java to clean up the chaos in assemble frameworks.

At the highest point of the task root, there are pom.xml documents and any properties, maven.xml.

Moreover, there are text records for the client to peruse quickly on accepting the source: README.txt, LICENSE.txt, and so on.

There are two subdirectories of this structure: src and target.

The src index contains the entirety of the source material for building the venture, its site, etc.

It contains a subdirectory for each sort: principle for the fundamental form of ancient rarity, test for the unit test code and assets, site, etc.

Inside source indexes, principle and test, there is one registry for the language java, under which there is the typical bundle order, and one for assets.

The assets under are duplicated to the objective classpath.

If there are other contributing sources to the ancient rarity construct, they would be under different subdirectories: for instance, src/fundamental/antlr would contain Antlr sentence structure definition records.


This is all we have in store for you today. In this Maven Tutorial, you have learned a lot of things such as the architecture of Maven, the benefits of using Maven, the striking features of Maven, the core concepts of Maven, and the directory structure of Maven.

In case we can help you to imbibe anything better, do let us know your query and we will get back to you. Until then keep reading and keep growing.

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As a Senior Writer for HKR Trainings, Sai Manikanth has a great understanding of today’s data-driven environment, which includes key aspects such as Business Intelligence and data management. He manages the task of creating great content in the areas of Digital Marketing, Content Management, Project Management & Methodologies, Product Lifecycle Management Tools. Connect with him on LinkedIn and Twitter.