IoT Tutorial

IoT, or the Internet of Things, is transforming the digital world by connecting physical devices. Also, it creates a broad network by connecting devices and equipment together. IoT provides the ability for these things to communicate with each other without human intervention. Further, IoT combines great computing features that help devices extract meaningful insights. In the upcoming days, IoT-based technology will change how people lead their lives through advanced service levels. IoT is expanding to everything from homes to large-scale enterprises. It connects everyone with everything and makes the global space future-ready with smart features. IoT technology is used by major industries like healthcare, finance, manufacturing, hospitality, and even agriculture. This IoT tutorial will help you go through the various aspects of the IoT, including its features and applications.

What is IOT?

Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of devices or people called "things" that are integrated in operating systems, electronic components, connections, and sensor systems that enable these artefacts to acquire and access information. The primary objective of IoT is to strengthen Internet access from connected devices such as a computer, mobile, tablet, to comparatively stupid devices such as a microwave.

IOT technology will make virtually everyone else connected and smart, by getting better aspects of people's lives with the authority of intelligence gathering, AI algorithms, and networks. IoT may also include an individual with a kidney disease monitor prosthesis, an organism with a spy camera, etc.

Internal 1 (1)

IoT technology refers to that which is inserted within the objects and helps them to connect internally or externally. It impacts the decision-making system very much. Moreover, IoT applies advanced automation and analytics that works with AI, sensors, cloud messaging, and many others. They provide overall support for the products and services actively. IoT develops a great system that holds good transparency, speed, performance, and control. 

Here the cloud platform contains all the necessary data that helps connect with everything with us. The IoT makes everything smart around us, allowing us to lead better lives. 

IoT expands to many sectors like agriculture, IT, medicine, smart cities, smart homes, etc. For example, we connect our vehicle using IoT and check its fuel status, speed, distance traveled, etc. Also, we can track the location of the car with IoT easily. Therefore, using the IoT will create a history of changing the world. 

Become a master of IoT by going through this HKR IoT Online Training!

Why the Internet of Things(IOT)?

Suppose just imagine everything around you such as your smart devices, car, home, workspace, city, are connected in an environment, IOT can make a big achievement here. The main reason for the necessity of the IOT in your daily life and organizational life improves efficiencies. 

  • For the companies which accommodate large processing of data, IOT is very helpful in analyzing the data by adding sensors very easily.
  • One can easily manage, track the things at your fingertips.
  • Reuse the workload with automation capability, process efficiency can be attained thereby saving costs and imposed money.

However, there is a huge demand for the certified peers in the IOT because everyone is adapting to the new innovations for better output.

History of IOT:

The history of IOT is described as follows.

  • Idea connected devices was proposed in 1970
  • John Romkey created a toaster that could be turned on/off over the Internet in 1990.
  • Siemens has introduced the first cell module built for M2M in 1995.
  • Kevin Ashton used the term "Internet of Things" throughout his work at P&G, which had become widely adopted in 1999.
  • The term has been listed in famous publications such as the Guardian, the Boston Globe, and the Scientific American in 2004
  • In 2005 the United Nations International Telecommunications Union (ITU) compiled its first report on the issue.
  • The Internet of Things has been born in 2008
  • Gartner, a market research company, includes technology called "The Internet of Things" in their research in 2011.
  • Upon its inception between 2007 to 2011, the future predictions for the IOT market will suppress the $1 trillion mark by 2022.

Prerequisites for learning the IOT tutorial:

The prerequisites to learn the IOT tutorial are basic knowledge on the networking, programming and databases as well relevant technologies that are associated with IOT.

How IOT works? 

The complete IoT process begins with devices such as mobile phones, smartwatches, electronic appliances such as TV, a vacuum cleaner that enables you to interact with the Iot ecosystem.

IoT devices help collect and transmit crucial data using sensors extensively utilized across the areas. It makes it easier to get any data from the network-based device users or the appliances to analyze and process it. Actuator devices also play a significant role in this regard. It works when certain conditions set by the user as per his needs are met, and the trigger activates. In that case, the Actuator devices will show which action needs to be executed. 

Moreover, the IoT system provides better reporting assistance between two different or the same networks or devices. Here, various communication protocols are helpful such as MQTT, FTP, HTTP, etc

Internal 2

People realized that IoT is not limited to a specific field or sector. It has many business apps like home automation, retail, healthcare, IT, automated vehicles, etc. Further, IoT has a great reach to different areas where IoT components will help to achieve success. 

The major components of IoT include sensors and devices, UI, connectivity, and data processing systems. They have a great presence in achieving this success. With the use of these components, we can achieve the desired results. The user can set some predefined protocols for the proper communication of devices. The IoT system will automatically adjust to the changes based on these predefined rules. 

Popular examples of IoT apps include smart thermostats, activity trackers, IoT-linked vehicles, smart homes, etc. 

Become a master of IoT by going through this HKR IoT Training in Mumbai!

IoT Training

  • Master Your Craft
  • Lifetime LMS & Faculty Access
  • 24/7 online expert support
  • Real-world & Project Based Learning

The Fundamental Components of the IoT Architecture are

Data Processing

Data processing starts within the software when the data is collected and sent to the cloud. It can be sometimes simple and sometimes challenging based on the condition. But sometimes, it needs user interaction when you check the temperature of an AC or heater that is too high. In the other case, when an intruder or unknown person enters your home.


Connectivity is the transport medium for sending the data collected from different sources to the cloud platform. Here, the sensors and devices that collect data can be linked to the cloud platform through various means. These include Wi-Fi, cellular networks, Bluetooth, WAN, LAN, etc. Choosing the right connectivity option in the IoT system is essential, as each option has a different range, bandwidth, etc.

User Interface

It plays an essential role in the IoT system as it displays the information ultimately to the end-user. A user can be notified through telephone calls, text messages, and emails. Also, a user may use an interface to quickly check into his IoT system, like checking security camera recordings for the activities around his house. 

However, it depends upon the capacity and complexity of our IoT application. Based on this, a user can perform specific actions that might affect the IoT system. Moreover, users can set predefined rules for the design, such as intruder alerts, system failure alarms, etc. It helps to alert the owners of houses as well as relevant authorities.

Networking connection

The network is the most important thing that connects IoT devices to communicate well. These devices mainly depend on networks to connect with gateways, servers, routers, and many other IoT gadgets. Through this networking connection, they send and receive data effectively to execute the functions for which they are built. 

Availability of Big Data

Many companies use Big Data to analyze and find patterns and trends to offer suitably various services. IoT utilizes Big Data much more effectively as they share a great relationship. To gather and transmit massive data, companies install sensor-based devices. All this data is stored within a repository and turned into various reports, charts, etc., using AI-driven platforms. The user devices will provide additional metrics like metadata, settings, and visuals. 

Control Units

Sensors are the primary data source in the IoT and play a crucial role in IoT technology. The sensor technology is growing at high speed by reducing the cost and size and increasing the accuracy of the output. Also, their ability to detect things with accuracy improved. There are a variety of sensors available, like temperature sensors, humidity sensors, motion, optical sensors, etc. Therefore, sensors are highly useful in IoT.

Low-power embedded systems

In IoT technology, the value of low-power usage has been given more importance. IoT is a process equipped with the objects like sensors, actuators, and processors, including software systems and development. All these systems together provide an immersed systems network. Some low-power systems, like sensors, RFID, actuators, etc., are interlinked in a wireless environment. They use standard communication protocols while connecting with each other or with other devices. Moreover, they consume less power and deliver high performance. 


Sensors or devices are a key element that helps you obtain real - time data from the environment. All of these data may have different levels of complexity. It may be an easy temperature measurement sensor, or it could be a recorded video feed.

The device may have different types of sensors that lead to different results apart from detecting. For example, a smartphone or a computer that has sensors installed, such as a GPS, camera, but your smartphone is unable to sense these things.

Cloud Server: 

Here all the collected or fetched ata is sent to the cloud server.The sensors should be moved to the network using various means to communicate. These media involve mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth, WI-FI, WAN, etc.


Once the information is gathered and stored in the cloud, the software will process the data collected. This method can only be used to monitor the level, read on apps like AC or heaters. However, occasionally it can also be very complicated, such as the recognition of people, the use of computer vision on video.

Mobile App: 

Data accessible and available to end-users in a way that can be accomplished by triggering alarms on their mobiles or by mailing them updates via email or text messages. The user also may need a functionality to actively monitor their IoT system. For instance,a camera has been installed in his home, one can access video recording and all the feeds.

Nevertheless, this is not always one-way interaction. Depending on the Iot system and the size of the data, the user may also be capable of performing a rippling action.For example, if the user sensors detect any change in temperature of the fridge, using IoT technology, the user will be able to check the temperature with the assistance of their smartphone.

Features of IOT:

Here we are going to discuss the important features of IOT in areas such as AI, sensors, connectivity, active engagement and devices as well. Let's discuss one after the other in detail.

Internal 3

  • AI in IOT: Functionally, IoT makes the whole thing smart, indicating that it improves different facets through the appropriate use of information, systems, and methodologies. It can easily be described as enhancing or augmenting your fridge by incorporating it with detectors that automatically identify when milk and eggs run short, to trying to order your option of grocery.
  • Sensors: The ultimate expression of IoT would have not been efficient without sensors. Essentially, they are the explanation and the main thrust of why this innovation continues to stand out. They play an important role in drawing a distinction of IOT by transferring it from a passive to an active network.
  • Connectivity: The idea of networking does not really have to be limited to large networks, it could also emerge on a better and lighter level without affecting its efficiency. IoT is going to come into the image and is establishing these small networks among its operating systems.
  • Active engagement:Today's communication between the various communication devices takes place through passive engagement. IoT has set an example by introducing active content, product or service commitment.
  • Smart devices: Devices are more effective, affordable and smaller over time, the Internet of Things intentionally uses small devices to distribute usability, flexibility and consistency.
  • Integrating: The IoT integrates different models and devices to provide a better user experience. Also, IoT ensures to have a formal agreement between the costs of infrastructure and operations. Without the integration of all these things, there will be no proper output.
  • Analyzing: After connecting all the devices and objects, it becomes necessary to make a real-time analysis of collected and used data. It helps to produce effective business intelligence reports. It helps to make many informed decisions. Our IoT systems are smart enough if the insights we get are excellent and effective. 

  • Endpoint Management: In the IoT infrastructure, it is necessary to manage the endpoints well; otherwise, there are chances of system failure. For example, if a biscuits-producing machine orders the stuff for biscuit production from the market with automation and there is no person to maintain the system, it will fail the IoT system. The results will be less effective then. Therefore, endpoint management is necessary to manage things properly.

IOT Applications:

Now, we will discuss the IOT applications in various industries such as consumer, electrical, industrial, commercial and infrastructural spaces, etc.

  • Consumer applications: A growing portion of IoT devices is being developed for consumer use, including connected vehicles, home automation, wearable technology, connected health, and remote monitoring devices.
  • Industrial applicational: Also known as IIoT, industrial IoT devices attain and analyse generated by connected equipment, operating technology (OT), locations and people. In combination with operational technology (OT) monitoring devices, IIoT helps to control and supervise industrial systems.In addition, the same integration can be conducted out for computerised record notifications of asset positioning in manufacturing storage units as the size of assets can vary from a small screw to the entire engine spare part and the misplacement of such assets can result in a percentile loss of manpower time and money.
  • Medical applications: The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is a technology for medical and health related purposes, data collection and analysis for mapping and testing. IoMT has been referred to as "Smart Healthcare" as a digital healthcare system technology, connecting available healthcare resources and healthcare services.IoT devices can be used to access multiple health surveillance and emergency communication systems. Specialized detectors can also be outfitted in living spaces to monitor the condition and particular well-being of senior citizens, while also making sure that effective care is dispensed and helping people to gain extra movement through treatment.
  • Infrastructural applications: Planning and controlling the process of feasible urban and rural infrastructure such as bridges, rail tracks and offshore wind farms is a key application of the IoT[60]. The IoT infrastructure can be used to monitor any event or change in structural conditions that could jeopardise quality and enhance risk.The IoT can profit the construction industry through cost savings, time reduction, better workday quality, cashless workflow and increased productivity. It can help you make quick decisions and save funds with Real-Time Data Analytics.
  • Healthcare Application: IoT apps have a great reach to different sectors, among which healthcare is the most important. IoT applications in the healthcare industry help doctors and healthcare experts monitor patients' health remotely. They can take feedback in real-time through the web-based connected devices and systems without direct patient interaction. These apps are handy when patients have no serious issues or infectious diseases like Malaria, Covid-19, etc. The use of surgical robots also helps doctors to perform critical surgeries very efficiently.
  • Energy Applications: In the energy sector, IoT apps and devices play a crucial role. The IoT sensors are beneficial for monitoring the daily temperature, humidity level, lighting, etc. These IoT sensors will provide accurate information that helps design algorithms to control energy use by making essential adjustments. Also, this will eliminate human interaction in this area. 

    Moreover, business entities can employ IoT-based environmental control systems for effective energy control. They can save a lot of energy and keep the ecosystem safe and secure.

  • Education Applications: Using IoT devices in the education sector can improve learning methods. Also, it will make the education system more interactive, collective, and accessible to many. Students can get reliable and easy access to all the learning materials and communication channels. Through this, teachers can monitor the student's progress in real-time and help them gain more skills. 

    Moreover, IoT systems are also helpful in deploying intelligent boards, innovative attendance platforms, alarm systems, locks, cameras, etc. All these will run through a system based on central control with automation. IoT devices aim to make teaching and learning more accessible and interactive. 

  • Government Applications: IoT helps improve the various global locations and smart cities with the collaboration of the Govt. entities. It covers infrastructure development, protection, and maintaining the communities well. It will help the Govt. know the requirements and make proper strategies. The govt. applications of the Internet of Things will include the following - 

    • Defense sector
    • Developing smart cities
    • Good planning and control of cities
    • Making a safe ecosystem for air and water
    • Creating more jobs, etc. 

    Thus, the Govt. can perform activities much better using IoT. 

  • Air and Water Pollution: Most cities are suffering from the most significant problem of air and water pollution. Integrating IoT sensors will help monitor the air and water pollution levels in different places. It will help people breathe fresh air and can drink pure water without pollution. 

    The IoT devices will help to control the pollution levels by collecting data from the city pollution. These include carbon emissions, smoke emissions from vehicles, levels of traffic, etc. Here, the ML algorithms also help to calculate pollution forecasts in different areas of the country. They inform the relevant officials of the output so they can act on it. Further, they can secure the environment and people's lives. 

  • Transportation : The use of the IoT helps much in the transportation field. Popular examples of IoT systems include self-driving cars, GPS, etc. GPS is the most prominent example of IoT, and most transport companies use it for smooth operations. They use it to track the vehicle location, to help with more efficient routes for trucks carrying freight, and speed up the deliveries. Furthermore, we can also use IoT to search traffic patterns and parking spaces in the cities. It helps in city planning and growth.

  • Marketing your product: The use of IoT in marketing can serve more customers with a better experience and reach business goals. The interactive IoT devices will bridge the gap between marketers and customers. It will give a better experience for the marketers to understand the customer's buying behavior and interests. It will help them market their products and services to the right people and prospects. 

    Most marketers use messages and emails to interact with customers and prospects. Data is the main thing that helps marketers to build more actionable insights that drive the business well. Moreover, marketers can analyze market trends using the IoT system and create strategies to get more profitable business. Also, they can make many happy customers. 

frequently asked IoT Interview questions and Answers !

Subscribe to our youtube channel to get new updates..!

Challenges faced by IOT:

IOT had faced some significant challenges and those are addressed as follows:

  • Inadequate testing and upgrading
  • Information security and privacy concerns
  • Complexity of software and bulk volumes of data.
  • AI integration and automation techniques
  • Constant power supply, which is very hard to maintain everytime needed.
  • Interaction and communication shortage.

IOT best practices:

In order to perform your organization in an effective cloud environment following best practices should be followed. They are:

  • One should effectively design products that ensure more productivity and reliability.
  • Should accommodate strong authentication rules and security standards.
  • Need to disable the irrelevant resources or services that are no longer required.
  • Must properly ensure all the devices are connected ,IOT management hub and security services are secured or not.
  • Designing the accurate algorithms for the systems to function properly for longer periods.

Related Article: Big Data in IoT

Advantages and disadvantages of IOT:

Here we are going to discuss some advantages and disadvantages of IOT. They are:

Advantages of IOT:

  • IOT facilitates improved data collection functionality.
  • It improves and enhances the customer experiences by enhancing the processes and detecting the issues.
  • IoT provides real-time information resulting in improved decision-making and resource management. For example, if a manufacturer finds a
  • problem in multiple car engines, he can follow up on the production plan of those engines and solve this problem with the belt of production.
  • IoT technology definitely helps to improve and improve technologies.


Some if the disadvantages of IOT includes:

  • IoT technology is creating an environment of connected devices. However, despite abundant security protocols, the framework may offer little encryption control throughout that process.
  • The use of IoT exposes a considerable amount of user information, in exquisite detail, without the active involvement of the user. This creates a lot of privacy issues.
  • There is genuine controversy about the flexibility of the IoT system. It is mainly about integration with some other system, as there are many various roles involved in the process. 
  • The design of the IoT system is also very complicated. It's also not very easy to deploy and maintain.
  • IoT has its own set of rules and regulations in place. However, because of its complexity, it is a task of complicity.

Related Article: Future Scope of IoT

IoT Training

Weekday / Weekend Batches


Well guys in the above IOT tutorial each and every concept is explained in detail. Moreover this tutorial helps you to gain fundamental knowledge in the subject and improves your tech skills as an IT professional. Meanwhile, if you had any questions, please do comment in the section below, our expertise will definitely get to you to solve your queries.

Related Articles:

1. IoT Applications

2. IoT Solutions Architect


1. How do I start learning IoT?

You should know the basics of IoT technology and its working strategy. Start with choosing the proper hardware and networking system for your IoT project. Get in-depth skills in various programming languages like Java, PHP, ML, AI, etc. Also, you must keep yourself up-to-date as IoT is ever-changing from one language to another, including the security system. You can also take the help of experts with real-time IoT knowledge.

2. What are the basics of IoT?

IoT is a network of some physical objects, including sensors, software, and hardware, that connect with the virtual world through the internet. It includes the components like sensors, user interface, connectivity, and data processing system. Also, IoT usage can help you reduce operational costs and save much time in delivering the product/service.

3. What are the 4 pillars of IoT?

IoT consists of four major components supporting IoT to work effectively.:-

  • Devices/Sensors
  • Data
  • Connectivity
  • Software and Analytics

4. What are the 3 types of IoT?

The different IoT types include- Consumer, Industrial, and Enterprise levels.

5. Which language is better for IoT?

Python is considered the best choice for IoT development. Some developers also prefer Java in this regard.

Find our upcoming IoT Training Online Classes

  • Batch starts on 5th Jun 2023, Weekday batch

  • Batch starts on 9th Jun 2023, Fast Track batch

  • Batch starts on 13th Jun 2023, Weekday batch

Global Promotional Image


Request for more information

Research Analyst
As a Senior Writer for HKR Trainings, Sai Manikanth has a great understanding of today’s data-driven environment, which includes key aspects such as Business Intelligence and data management. He manages the task of creating great content in the areas of Digital Marketing, Content Management, Project Management & Methodologies, Product Lifecycle Management Tools. Connect with him on LinkedIn and Twitter.