Hive Vs Impala

Since Hadoop was released onto the market ten years ago, it has continued to expand and advance. Every single Hadoop version and abstraction aims to address a specific flaw in data processing, storage, or analysis. Facebook developed Apache Hive to organize and manage the massive datasets stored in Hadoop's shared storage. Hadoop MapReduce is abstracted by Apache Hive, which also includes its own SQL-like language called HiveQL. In order to overcome the constraints brought on the Hadoop Sql's poor interactivity, Cloudera Impala was created. Data must only be kept on Hadoop clusters for Cloudera Impala to deliver low delay, high-performance SQL-like queries for processing and analyzing data. Big data aficionados have not been at all disappointed by the recent data boom. The issues it has brought about and the new sectors it has spawned the need for constant innovation in how we use technology. Big Data is constantly expanding. It keeps putting pressure on already-existing data processing, analysis, and query platforms to enhance their capabilities without sacrificing accuracy and speed. Numerous comparisons have been made, and they frequently provide conflicting conclusions. It is mentioned that Cloudera Impala & Apache Hive are two formidable rivals striving for recognition in the database searching field. Although Hadoop has unmistakably become the go-to data warehousing platform, the Cloudera Impala vs. Hive argument won't go away.

What is Hive?

In order to provide data query and analysis, Apache Hive is a data warehouse software package built on top of Apache Hadoop. Hive provides a SQL-like interface for querying data held in a variety of Hadoop-integrated databases and storage systems. Apache Hive is unquestionably the way to go if you want to take advantage of your expertise with SQL while using a sophisticated analytics language (without coding MapReduce tasks separately). In any case, HiveQL requests are transformed into a correlating MapReduce job that runs on the cluster & provides the desired result.

Since it facilitates the analysis of huge datasets kept in HDFS as well as additional compatible file systems like Amazon S3, Apache Hive is flexible in its application. It offers a SQL-like language (HiveQL) with schema on reading & seamlessly transforms queries to MapReduce, Apache Tez, and Spark processes to keep traditional database query designers engaged. Additional attributes of Hive include:

  • Indexing to facilitate quicker processing
  • support for several storage formats, including RCFile, HBase, ORC, and plain text
  • RDBMS metadata storage causes downtime for semantic tests to be made while running queries.
  • Has implicitly turned SQL-like searches into MapReduce, Tez, or Spark jobs
  • User-defined functions (UDFs) with well-known built-ins for manipulating strings, dates, and other data mining tools.

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What is an Impala?

It is an Apache Hadoop-powered computer cluster's open-source massively parallel SQL query engine for data storage. Impala was created in 2012 and has been compared to Google F1 as the open-source version. Because Cloudera Impala doesn't need moving or transforming data before processing, it is a great option for programmers executing queries on HDFS & Apache HBase. As its data and file formats, metadata, protection, and resource planning protocols are identical to those in use by MapReduce, Apache Hive, Apache Pig, as well as other Hadoop software, Cloudera Impala integrates with the Hadoop ecosystem with ease.

Impala significantly improves performance metrics by doing away with the requirement to move huge data sets to specialized processing systems or change data formats before analysis. Impala's key characteristics include:

  • Supports the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) and Apache HBase storage formats, including text, LZO, SequenceFile, Avro, RCFile, and Parquet
  • Supports Hadoop Protection (Kerberos authentication)
  • Apache Sentry provides fine-grained, role-based authorization.
  • can quickly read Apache Hive's metadata, ODBC driver, & SQL syntax.

The fact that Impala now has support from Amazon Web Services, as well as MapR, may be used to measure its rise in only a little over two years.

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Compare Hive Vs Impala.

Now let us learn about some of the major differences between Hive and Impala:

1. Developed by

Hive was created by Facebook. On other hand, Impala is the creation of the Apache Software Foundation.

2. File Format

Hive supports Sequence files, Optimized row columnar (ORC) format with Zlib compression, Text File, and RC file format.

Impala supports the Parquet format with snappy compression, Sequence file, Avro, and LZO.

3. Language

Hive has been written using JAVA.

Impala has been written using C++.

4. Processing Speed

Hive is significantly slower than Impala, however, with the release of Hive 2.0 with LLAP support, the difference is getting less clear. The performance benefit is primarily because of the absence of traditional MapReduce. Impala does not have the startup delays or excessive I/O operations associated with Hive because it uses MPP rather than MapReduce. Impala outperforms Hive in terms of performance since it doesn't need to convert data types or transfer huge data sets before running queries.

 5. Latency

Hive has higher Latency.

Impala has low Latency.

6. Storage Support

Hive utilizes RC files and ORC for storage support

Impala utilizes Hadoop and Apache Hbase for storage support.

7. Code Conversion

Hive generates Query expression at the time of compilation.

In Impala, code is generated at runtime.

8. Supports Parallel Processing

Hive does not support parallel processing. 

On the other hand, Impala supports parallel Processing.

9.MapReduce Support

Hive supports MapReduce whereas Impala does not.

10. Hadoop Security

Hive does not support Hadoop security, whereas Impala supports Kerberos Authentication.

11. Usage

If you are thinking about undertaking an upgrade job, the hive would be your best option. Compatibility is a crucial element to consider.

If you're just starting on a new project, Impala is the better option among the two.

12. Fault-Tolerant

Hive supports Fault-tolerance.

Impala does not support Fault tolerance.

 13. Complex Types

Hive has support for complex types.

Impala does not support complex types.

 14. Database Type

Hive is a batch-centric MapReduce.

Impala is an MPP database.

 15. Interactive Computing

Interactive Computing is not supported in Hive.

Impala supports interactive computing.

16. Execution

Hive is fault-tolerant, therefore even if a data node fails while the query is being executed, the output of the query will still be produced.

A data node goes down while the query is being executed, and Impala restarts.

17. Resource Management

Resource Management of Hive is YARN.

Whereas, the resource management of Impala is Native*YARN.

18. Distributions

HIVE - Hadoop Distributions, Hortonworks (Tez, LLAP)

Impala - Cloudera MapR, (*Amazon EMR)

19. Audience

The target audience for HIVE is primarily, Data Engineers.

The primary target audience of Impala is Data analysts & Data Scientists.

 20. Throughput

HIVE has a throughput rate.

Impala has a low throughput rate.

21. Time Consumption

Hive LLAP's dynamic runtime capabilities reduce the amount of labor required in general. Therefore, we may conclude that using Hive LLAP requires less time.

Impala takes less time to process simpler queries than Hive LLAP, but more time to process complicated queries.

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Key Difference Between Hive and Impala

  • Impala is created by Apache Software Foundation while Hive is created by Jeff's team at Facebook.
  • Impala is written in C++ while Hive is developed in Java.
  • Hive processes query slowly, but Impala does so 6-69 times more quickly.
  • Hive has a high latency while Impala has low latency.
  • While Impala storage enables Hadoop and Apache HBase, Hive only provides RC and ORC file storage.
  • While Impala produces code for "large loops" during runtime, Hive produces query expressions at compile time.
  • Parallel processing is not supported by Hive, however, it is by Impala.
  • Impala doesn't really support MapReduce, although Hive does.
  • Impala enables Kerberos Authentication but Hive lacks any security features.
  • Hive is the best option for any project upgrade where consistency and speed are equally critical, whereas Impala is the best option for new projects.
  • Impala doesn't really offer fault tolerance, whereas Hive does.
  • Impala does not support complicated types, although Hive does.
  • Interactive computing is not supported by Hive, however, it is supported by Impala.
  • Impala daemon processes are launched at boot time itself, unlike Hive query, which has a "cold start" issue.

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In this essay, we have attempted to demonstrate the two technologies of Hive and Impala as well as their fundamental distinctions. Practically speaking, we can argue that Hive & Impala are not rivals because they have the same MapReduce base for query execution. However, how they are used may differ. We can utilize it separately or in combination depending on our needs and the best option is given compatibility, requirement, and performance. Whilst Impala remains memory intensive and struggles to handle complex data operations, such as join queries, Hive QL is a very flexible and universal language. Hive will perform better in cases where your project's work involves batch processing for a lot of data, but Impala will perform better in situations where your work involves real-time processing of ad-hoc data queries.

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As a senior Technical Content Writer for HKR Trainings, Gayathri has a good comprehension of the present technical innovations, which incorporates perspectives like Business Intelligence and Analytics. She conveys advanced technical ideas precisely and vividly, as conceivable to the target group, guaranteeing that the content is available to clients. She writes qualitative content in the field of Data Warehousing & ETL, Big Data Analytics, and ERP Tools. Connect me on LinkedIn.

A: Impala uses MPP (massively parallel processing), whereas Hive uses MapReduce internally, which results in certain early overheads. Impala, therefore, gives a faster response.

A: An Apache Hadoop-powered computer cluster can store data in Apache Impala, an open-source massively parallel processing (MPP) SQL query engine. Google F1, which served as inspiration for Impala's 2012 development, has been compared to Impala as the open-source version.

A: No as, Impala does not take the place of frameworks for batch processing based on MapReduce, such as Hive. Long-running batch tasks, for instance, those requiring batch execution of Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) type processes, are ideally suited for Hive and other MapReduce-based frameworks. 

A: Atomic, consistent, isolated, and durable (ACID) transactions are supported by Hive. The MERGE statement, that now also complies with ACID requirements, can be used to update data.