Hadoop Architecture

Hadoop is an open-source framework that helps you store, manage and analyze big data. It's a distributed file system designed to handle large amounts of data across many nodes on a cluster. The Hadoop framework uses the MapReduce algorithm, which distributes tasks across multiple computers so that each computer can handle a small portion of the processing. It's like having multiple people working on each task simultaneously, except many people are doing their part instead of just one person doing all the work.

Overview of Hadoop Architecture

Hadoop is an extensive software framework created to manage and process large data sets. It uses the Map-Reduce paradigm, which splits data into smaller chunks and processes them in parallel using multiple nodes, which are computers that work together.

Hadoop's architecture is made up of four components

Hadoop Mapreduce

1. MapReduce

MapReduce was a service that allowed users to store and share information. It was a platform that allowed users to create applications using MapReduce technology. MapReduce was designed to be an easy way for people to share their data and collaborate with other people.

It allowed users to upload their files, which were then split into different chunks of data, which were then processed by the user's computer, which would give them results on how many files each user had uploaded as well as how many files each user had shared with others.

2. HDFS(Hadoop distributed File System)

HDFS is a distributed file system that stores your data across multiple servers. These servers are spread worldwide, so you don't have to worry about any one point of failure. The data is safe in that there's no single point of failure for your information—it's just stored on different machines, which means that if something goes wrong with one server, the others can continue storing your files.

3. YARN(Yet Another Resource Framework)

Yarn is a "distributed system" that allows you to write data processing applications in Java. It has been designed to run Hadoop applications as a scalable, fault-tolerant, and fault-tolerant system. This component provides a high level of abstraction over hardware resources and offers high performance on commodity hardware.

4. Common Utilities or Hadoop Common

It's a central service that provides data access and data storage. Standard utilities are a crucial part of the Hadoop ecosystem because they help users to get their data, process it, store it, and manage it. For keeping your data in the cloud, you need standard utilities to access and process it.

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Layers of Hadoop architecture

We've compiled this list of the layers of Hadoop architecture:

1. Distributed Storage Layer

The Distributed Storage Layer (DSL) is the most critical layer of Hadoop architecture.

It is responsible for storing data in the Hadoop cluster. It contains the storage hardware and software used to store data in HDFS. The Distributed File System (DFS) is a partitioning scheme that divides HDFS into files and supports file replication for fault tolerance.

2. Cluster Resource Management.

The purpose of this layer is to manage the resources allocated to a cluster. It does this by identifying the total amount of memory available in a cluster and then distributing it evenly between each node in the cluster. This allows each node to have a guaranteed amount of memory allocated to it, which prevents one node from gaining an advantage over another.

It also allows nodes with less memory than their neighbors to be automatically assigned resources from other nodes, which helps balance the load across all nodes in a cluster.

3. Processing Framework Layer

The processing framework layer corresponds to the Hadoop MapReduce computational model. This layer is responsible for managing and distributing the tasks across the nodes of a cluster, thereby ensuring that all data is processed in parallel.

The processing framework layer also provides mechanisms for inter-process communication and coordination between processes.

4. Application Programming Interface

The Application Programming Interface is the interface between the user and Hadoop. It acts as a bridge between the application and Hadoop, allowing users to know what data is stored on their server, how it is clustered, and how it can be accessed. This API is also used by Hadoop to interact with applications, allowing them to request or process data in a manner that is impossible through the filesystem or other programmatic interfaces.

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History of Hadoop?

Hadoop started as a project at Yahoo! in 1999 but only got its name in 2001—after Google acquired it for $1 billion in 2004. It's an extensive database of data that can be accessed and analyzed by multiple computers at once. The data is stored on hard drives that are shared between all the computers, making accessing all the information held on them easier.

Hadoop is used by companies like Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to store their data in one place to make better decisions about how they use it. It's also used by organizations like NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for large-scale data analytics projects involving various types of information, such as weather reports or satellite images.

Features of Hadoop

Open Source

The Hadoop software is an open-source project, meaning it's free and available to all users. You don't need a code license to use the software or pay licensing fees. It also means that you can use the software without having to worry about patent issues, which some companies have been concerned about in the past.

Highly Scalable Cluster

Hadoop is highly scalable, which means it can handle a high volume of data and still process it quickly. It's also fault-tolerant, so the system will still function if one node goes down.

Fault Tolerance 

Hadoop can tolerate several faults at the same time. Thus, if one node fails, it will affect only the failed node and not the entire cluster. The data will be replicated to other nodes in the cluster.

High Availability 

The data stored in Hadoop is highly available. If one node fails, all the nodes will continue to work as usual and act as a single system. If a node crashes again, it will be automatically restarted by Hadoop as long as enough data replicas are stored on other cluster nodes.


Hadoop is the most cost-effective open-source software to store and process large amounts of data. With the help of Hadoop, you can store all your data in a single system. It is an easy way to store and efficiently process large amounts of data.


Hadoop's flexibility is one of its most attractive features. It can store and process any type of data in a SQL or NoSQL database. The built-in MapReduce function makes it easy to process big data sets using Hadoop.

Easy to Use

Hadoop is easy to use, and you'll find that it makes your life easier. From installing Hadoop to creating your first MapReduce job to running a cluster of machines in the cloud—it's all pretty straightforward.

Data Locality

Hadoop uses Data Locality to keep data close to its source, and it reduces the amount of data storage required, which is one of the reasons that Hadoop has been used in the past by companies like Facebook and Yahoo!

Provides faster data processing

Faster data processing is a crucial feature of Hadoop. Hadoop can process large volumes of data quickly and efficiently to get the most out of your existing infrastructure and avoid investing in costly hardware upgrades.

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In conclusion, Hadoop is a powerful technology that can be used to enhance the capabilities of your enterprise. It can improve operational efficiency, data quality, and usability.

Hadoop makes it possible to store, process, and analyze large amounts of data quickly and easily. It is an open-source software framework that allows users to access their data from any system or platform.

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Hadoop architecture organizes a collection of computers, networks, and storage to maximize the efficiency of storing, processing, and accessing data.

The architecture used by HDFS is called MapReduce. MapReduce is a distributed computing model that distributes the work of processing data across multiple machines. This allows the system to scale up and down and provide fault tolerance.

There are four layers in Hadoop  

  • Distributed Storage Layer
  • Cluster Resource Management
  • Processing Framework Layer
  • Application Programming Interface

Yes! Hadoop is an open-source framework that helps you store, manage and analyze big data ranging in size from gigabytes to petabytes of data.

The primary features of Hadoop are

Open Source

Highly Scalable Cluster

Fault Tolerance is Available

High Availability is Provided


Hadoop Provide Flexibility

Easy to Use

Hadoop uses Data Locality

provides faster data processing.