CCNA Tutorial

The CCNA is a well-known certification between many computer network engineers. This certification program is accurate for all graduate students, as well as network administrators, network engineers, network specialists, and network support engineers.CCNA was founded in 1998, and it is estimated that one million certified professionals have graduated since then. Before learning CCNA networking in depth, we will explore what a computer network is.

Computer network:

A computer network is a collection of interconnected devices or systems that can communicate with one another through the use of a standard protocol.

Consider two computers communicating with each other via a cable; this small network can aid in the exchange of data between two systems/machines.Everyone's mind is racing with the thought, "What if there are multiple systems?"To connect more than two devices when there are multiple systems, we can use a hub, a network design, or a switch.Every device on a network can now communicate with one another as shown in the below diagram.

CCNA, or Cisco Certified Network Associate, is a certification from the world's largest most well-known company Cisco for selling and manufacturing network equipment.

How to get the CCNA certification?

Acquiring a CCNA certification necessitates adequate preparation and passing the required exam. The training is provided through a Cisco Learning Partner. Registration for the exam can be done directly at Cisco or with the assistance of a Cisco learning partner.

Cisco education partners are well-known for their unrivaled excellent training and provision of high-quality learning materials at the same time, including certified lecturers.

The qualifying grades for the exam you require may differ. In most cases, it is around 80%. Obtaining the CCNA Certification allows a person to work as a computer support specialist, network consultant, or network administrator.

The CCNA certification seems to be valid for three years. To expedite your certification, you must pass an Assistant or Licensed professional level exam before your current certification expires. It ensures advanced learning and ensures that you are adequately competing in the ever-changing world of (I.T.)Information Technology.

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CCNA basic terms:

These are some of the essential fundamentals and common topics covered in CCNA certification OSI models.

  • OSI models
  • IP addressing
  • IP routing
  • Network security and management
  • WLAN and VLAN
  • Routing protocols and routers
  • Troubleshooting
  • Network Device Security

OSI Models:

OSI is a centralized model that describes how various protocols, applications, and devices interact to form a network. The IOS developed the Open System Interconnection (OSI) (International Standard Organization).

The OSI model consists of seven distinct models.

Layer 7: application
Layer 6: presentation 
Layer 5: session
Layer 4: transport
Layer 3: network
Layer 2: datalink 
Layer 1: physical 

Application layer:

The application layer is just where your application's rules, customs, and services continue. Telnet, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and SMTP are all represented by whatever is located here (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).

Presentation layer:

The session layer information is presented to the application by the presentation panel/layer. Encryption, JPG, and ASCII are examples of whatever is located here.

Session layer:

The session layer is in charge of initiating and terminating network connections. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) functions, such as the login portion of a SQL concourse, are session layer representatives.

Transport layer:

Now at the transport layer, UDP and TCP are used. TCP provides reliable, in-order information delivery, as well as sequencing, error correction, and windowing. Furthermore, TCP provides origin and target port numbers that are commonly associated with applications within the transport layer. For example, TCP port 25 is SMTP, TCP port 23 is telnet, TCP port 22 is SSH, and TCP port 80 is ip.

Network layer:

The network layer is found wherever the 'I.P.' part of 'TCP/IP' is found. Within the network, I.P. is subject to marking. Because I.P. operates at the third layer, it is reasonable to assume that routing and routers also operate at the third layer. Any data at the third layer has also been designated as a packet.

Data Link layer:

In the case of a WAN, several rules, such as Frame-Relay and PPP, operate at the second layer. However, if you simply look at the LAN, the most well-known rule associated with the second layer is Ethernet. The Ethernet rules use MAC approaches to identify unique network tools. Any data on the second layer has triggered a frame.

Physical layer:

The physical layer provides true device association. The first layer is where fiber optic cables and Ethernet cables operate. Light or electricity transports data through the cables. That information is immediately described as a bit, either a zero or a one.

Now we will explore the routing loops.

Routing loops:

To promote and study network paths, the distance-vector routing protocol employs broadcast messages.

A router using a distance-vector routing protocol addresses broadcast messages away from each of its current interfaces on a regular basis. This broadcast information includes the router's entire routing record.

While only a few other routers using the same distance-vector routing protocol recognize those broadcast communications, those who acquire unique routes from the huge amounts recorded and add them to their routing table.

As a consequence, all routers that use a steeper incline routing protocol study the entire network's routes.

Why should you use CCNA?

  • CCNA helps greatly in quickly addressing any problem.
  • The CCNA certification proves the authority to access, comprehend, troubleshoot, and continue operating switched and routed networks.
  • It guides users through the process of creating a point-to-point connection.
  • The CCNA guides and explains how to construct a network address.
  • If you have a CCNA certification, you can earn a lot of money.

Advantages of CCNA Certification:

  • People with the CCNA certification are given preference by employers.
  • The CCNA certification will serve as a stepping stone to another Cisco networking course.
  • New expectations arise, and new job opportunities emerge for those who complete the CCNA certification program. Eminent I.T. firms are eager to hire CCNA certified professionals and offer generous incentives to keep them on the job for an extended period of time.
  • Based on the updated type of information, the competitor can outflank other system administration designs.
Cyber Security & SIEM Tools, ccna-tutorial-description-0, Cyber Security & SIEM Tools, ccna-tutorial-description-1

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Features of CCNA:

  • I.P. connectivity: OSPFv2, IP routing
  • Fundamentals of security: port security, VPNs, and wireless security.
  • IP services include QoS, DCHP, SNMP, and NTP.
  • TCP and UDP, switches, IPV4 AND IPV6 are all network fundamentals.
  • Trunking, Etherchannel, and VLANs are all methods of network access.
  • Chef, SDN, REST APIs, and Puppet are examples of programmability and automation.

Now we will explore IP addressing and Mac addressing.

IP addressing:

An I.P. address is a type of address that is used to uniquely identify a device on an I.P. network. The address is made up of 32 binary bits that can be distinguished within a portion of the system and host parcel using a subnet mask. The 32 binary bits are divided into four octets, with one octet equaling 8 bits.

Mac Addressing:

According to Edward Snowden, the National Security Agency of the United States has a framework that records the advancement of cell phones inside a city by noticing MAC addresses. Randomization of Macintosh addresses during filtering was included. Android since version 6.0, Windows 10, and Linux since version 3.18.

Both the I.P. Address and the MAC Address are used to characterize a device on the internet in an interesting way. The MAC address is provided by the manufacturer of the NIC card, and the I.P address is provided by the Internet Service Provider.

Router memory:

There are four types of router memory. They are:

Non-volatile Random Access Memory:

We could save a startup's configuration file. When the router boots up, IOS will read this configuration file. NVRAM is a very fast memory that can keep its contents even if the router is restarted.


The router's processor board contains read-only memory, which is abbreviated as ROM. The initial bootstrap software that runs on a Cisco router is typically saved in ROM.


RAM is a type of temporary memory that loses data when the switch is turned off or restarted. On a switch, RAM is used to run the Cisco IOS operating system and IOS framework tables. RAM is also used to store steering tables, keep ARP reserves, and execute bundle buffering.

Flash Memory:

Flash memory is a type of memory that can be electronically reprogrammed and erased. The full Operating System Image is stored in the Flash memory (Internet Operating System ). This allows you to redesign the operating system without having to remove any chips. When the router is shut down or restarted, the content in the streak memory is retained.

Working in network security:

Several layers of defense are consolidated in network security at the network's edge. Every layer of network security implements controls and policies that allow authentic clients/users to gain access to network resources while preventing unauthorized users from doing so.

Different types of network security:

There are several types of network security. They are as follows:

  • Email Security
  • Firewalls
  • Segmentation of the network
  • Anti-Virus Program
  • Control of access

Disadvantages of CCNA:

The following are the disadvantages of CCNA. They are:

  • When hosts in your network make a request to a remote web, the remote web will notice the connection while it is being transferred from your NAT router. Few hosts implement a level of security as to numerous associations with acknowledgment from another host, and they do not respond if the specified number of requests is reached. This can degrade your network's presentation.
  • End-to-end In addition, I.P. discernibility is lost. If you have to investigate your system from a remote location, you will find it increasingly difficult and, at times, impossible.

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To plunge into important subjects like switching and CCNA routing, you must first understand the fundamentals of IPV6, IPV4, and basic networking. The topics covered in this CCNA tutorial are adequate for gaining a basic understanding of the CCNA; however, if you want to gain a thorough understanding of the CCNA, please enroll in the course.

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Saritha Reddy
Saritha Reddy
Research Analyst
A technical lead content writer in HKR Trainings with an expertise in delivering content on the market demanding technologies like Networking, Storage & Virtualization,Cyber Security & SIEM Tools, Server Administration, Operating System & Administration, IAM Tools, Cloud Computing, etc. She does a great job in creating wonderful content for the users and always keeps updated with the latest trends in the market. To know more information connect her on Linkedin, Twitter, and Facebook.