The CCNA is a well-known certification between many computer network engineers. This certification program is accurate for all graduate students, as well as network administrators, network engineers, network specialists, and network support engineers.CCNA was founded in 1998, and it is estimated that one million certified professionals have graduated since then. Before learning CCNA networking in depth, we will explore what a computer network is.
A computer network is a collection of interconnected devices or systems that can communicate with one another through the use of a standard protocol.
Consider two computers communicating with each other via a cable; this small network can aid in the exchange of data between two systems/machines.Everyone's mind is racing with the thought, "What if there are multiple systems?"To connect more than two devices when there are multiple systems, we can use a hub, a network design, or a switch.Every device on a network can now communicate with one another as shown in the below diagram.
CCNA, or Cisco Certified Network Associate, is a certification from the world's largest most well-known company Cisco for selling and manufacturing network equipment.
How to get the CCNA certification?
Acquiring a CCNA certification necessitates adequate preparation and passing the required exam. The training is provided through a Cisco Learning Partner. Registration for the exam can be done directly at Cisco or with the assistance of a Cisco learning partner.
Cisco education partners are well-known for their unrivaled excellent training and provision of high-quality learning materials at the same time, including certified lecturers.
The qualifying grades for the exam you require may differ. In most cases, it is around 80%. Obtaining the CCNA Certification allows a person to work as a computer support specialist, network consultant, or network administrator.
The CCNA certification seems to be valid for three years. To expedite your certification, you must pass an Assistant or Licensed professional level exam before your current certification expires. It ensures advanced learning and ensures that you are adequately competing in the ever-changing world of (I.T.)Information Technology.
These are some of the essential fundamentals and common topics covered in CCNA certification OSI models.
OSI is a centralized model that describes how various protocols, applications, and devices interact to form a network. The IOS developed the Open System Interconnection (OSI) (International Standard Organization).
The OSI model consists of seven distinct models.
Layer 7: application
Layer 6: presentation
Layer 5: session
Layer 4: transport
Layer 3: network
Layer 2: datalink
Layer 1: physical
The application layer is just where your application's rules, customs, and services continue. Telnet, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and SMTP are all represented by whatever is located here (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).
The session layer information is presented to the application by the presentation panel/layer. Encryption, JPG, and ASCII are examples of whatever is located here.
The session layer is in charge of initiating and terminating network connections. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) functions, such as the login portion of a SQL concourse, are session layer representatives.
Now at the transport layer, UDP and TCP are used. TCP provides reliable, in-order information delivery, as well as sequencing, error correction, and windowing. Furthermore, TCP provides origin and target port numbers that are commonly associated with applications within the transport layer. For example, TCP port 25 is SMTP, TCP port 23 is telnet, TCP port 22 is SSH, and TCP port 80 is ip.
The network layer is found wherever the 'I.P.' part of 'TCP/IP' is found. Within the network, I.P. is subject to marking. Because I.P. operates at the third layer, it is reasonable to assume that routing and routers also operate at the third layer. Any data at the third layer has also been designated as a packet.
In the case of a WAN, several rules, such as Frame-Relay and PPP, operate at the second layer. However, if you simply look at the LAN, the most well-known rule associated with the second layer is Ethernet. The Ethernet rules use MAC approaches to identify unique network tools. Any data on the second layer has triggered a frame.
The physical layer provides true device association. The first layer is where fiber optic cables and Ethernet cables operate. Light or electricity transports data through the cables. That information is immediately described as a bit, either a zero or a one.
Now we will explore the routing loops.
To promote and study network paths, the distance-vector routing protocol employs broadcast messages.
A router using a distance-vector routing protocol addresses broadcast messages away from each of its current interfaces on a regular basis. This broadcast information includes the router's entire routing record.
While only a few other routers using the same distance-vector routing protocol recognize those broadcast communications, those who acquire unique routes from the huge amounts recorded and add them to their routing table.
As a consequence, all routers that use a steeper incline routing protocol study the entire network's routes.
Now we will explore IP addressing and Mac addressing.
An I.P. address is a type of address that is used to uniquely identify a device on an I.P. network. The address is made up of 32 binary bits that can be distinguished within a portion of the system and host parcel using a subnet mask. The 32 binary bits are divided into four octets, with one octet equaling 8 bits.
According to Edward Snowden, the National Security Agency of the United States has a framework that records the advancement of cell phones inside a city by noticing MAC addresses. Randomization of Macintosh addresses during filtering was included. Android since version 6.0, Windows 10, and Linux since version 3.18.
Both the I.P. Address and the MAC Address are used to characterize a device on the internet in an interesting way. The MAC address is provided by the manufacturer of the NIC card, and the I.P address is provided by the Internet Service Provider.
There are four types of router memory. They are:
We could save a startup's configuration file. When the router boots up, IOS will read this configuration file. NVRAM is a very fast memory that can keep its contents even if the router is restarted.
The router's processor board contains read-only memory, which is abbreviated as ROM. The initial bootstrap software that runs on a Cisco router is typically saved in ROM.
RAM is a type of temporary memory that loses data when the switch is turned off or restarted. On a switch, RAM is used to run the Cisco IOS operating system and IOS framework tables. RAM is also used to store steering tables, keep ARP reserves, and execute bundle buffering.
Flash memory is a type of memory that can be electronically reprogrammed and erased. The full Operating System Image is stored in the Flash memory (Internet Operating System ). This allows you to redesign the operating system without having to remove any chips. When the router is shut down or restarted, the content in the streak memory is retained.
Several layers of defense are consolidated in network security at the network's edge. Every layer of network security implements controls and policies that allow authentic clients/users to gain access to network resources while preventing unauthorized users from doing so.
There are several types of network security. They are as follows:
The following are the disadvantages of CCNA. They are:
To plunge into important subjects like switching and CCNA routing, you must first understand the fundamentals of IPV6, IPV4, and basic networking. The topics covered in this CCNA tutorial are adequate for gaining a basic understanding of the CCNA; however, if you want to gain a thorough understanding of the CCNA, please enroll in the course.
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